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149 terms

Final Multiple Choice

STUDY
PLAY
The vast majority of psychologists study
everday behavior and feelings
The pursuit of knowledge for its own sake is called
basic science
A complex explanation based on findings from many studies is a(n)
theory
The concept of "unconscious determinant of behavior" is associated with
Sigmund Freud
A hypothesis is
An educated guess, scientifically tested, and part of the Scientific Method
The first modern psychologist was
Wilhelm Wundt
Which of the following is associated with Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers?
humanistic psychology
Psychologists who use psychological principles to solve immediate problems are practicing
applied science
Participants in an experiment who are exposed to the independent variable are called the ___ group
experimental
The most commonly used measure of central tendency is the
mean
When neither the participants nor the experimenter knows which group of participants is the experimental one, the study is known as a
double-blind study
What is the mode of the following distribution:
mode is the most often occurring number in a set of numbers
In ___ studies, psychologists study the same group of participants at regular intervals over a period of years
longitudinal
The variable that experimenters manipulate is called the ___ variable
independent
A measure of the degree of relatedness between two variables is
correlation
The cardinal rule of naturalistic observation is to
avoid disturbing the participants
When researchers unwittingly bring about the situation they expected to find, they have created a
self-fulfilling prophecy
On a normal curve, the center of the range of scores is represented by the
mean
Psychologists call the internally programmed growth of a child
maturation
Jean Piaget's research shows that
intelligence develops as children grow
An infant who has developed object permanence
knows an object exists even if it can't be seen
A newborn infant has certain automatic movement patterns called
reflexes
Sigmund Freud believed that children were born with ___ urges
sexual and aggressive
Lawrence Kohlberg identified six stages of moral development. In Stage 1 a child
is totally egocentric
Imprinting is
sudden and can take place in less than a day
Which of the following helps an infant find the mother's breast?
rooting reflex
Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development claims that if a young child is praised for her new abilities she will learn
autonomy
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of girls who mature early
They are proud of height and figure at first
The concept of adolescent identity categories is associated with
James Marcia
Simone, a typical adolescent, will most likely turn to her peers for advice on
fashion
The androgynous role is one that
combines both male and female characteristics
Which of the following events does NOT occur at approximately the same time as the other
menopause
The goal of hospice care is to
improve the quality of life
Brianna is at her physical peak. She most likely is ___ years old
18-30
Which of the following is the correct order of the stages of adjusting to dying and death as defined by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross
denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
Alberto believes that his function in life is to help younger generations by passing on his acquired business wisdom. Erik Erikson would say that Alberto is exhibiting
generativity
According to Erik Erikson, a successful midlife transition for men fosters a sense of
generativity
The autonomic nervous system regulates the action of the
involuntary muscles and organs
The nervous system and the endocrine system
send info to and from the brain
The EEG monitors
electrical activity in the brain
In the nature-nurture question, nature refers to
biological makeup
The brain and spinal cord make up the
central nervous system
In a grand mal seizure
uncontrolled electrical activity in one hemisphere of the brain spreads to the other hemisphere
Regions of the cerebral cortex are referred to as
lobes
Which of the following is NOT a basic part of a neuron
medulla
Which of the following hormones is important to the physical development of men?
testosterone
An injury to the spinal cord
can lead to paralysis
Which of the following is NOT true of identical twins?
they occur more frequently than fraternal twins
The endocrine system sends chemical messages called
hormones
You do not constantly feel your clothing on your body because of
sensory adaption
The absolute threshold is the ___ that a person can detect half of the time
weakest amount of a stimulus
Specialized receptor cells responsible for night vision are called
rods
Smell receptors send messages to the brain via the ___ nerve
olfactory
Light enters the eye through the
pupil
The four primary sensory experiences that make up taste are
sour, salty, bitter, sweet
In classical conditioning, the best results occur when the conditioned stimulus is presented
before the unconditioned response
A subject responding to a second stimulus similar to the original CS is an example of
generalization
An unpleasant consequence that decreases the frequency of the response that produced it is called
punishment
Learning from the consequences of behavior is called
operant conditioning
A child saying "Daddy" only to her father is an example of
discrimination
In classical conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus elicits an
automatic response
In human society, money serves as a
secondary reinforcer
An individual watches a friend send an E-mail message. When the individual is later able to send an E-mail message, the type of learning exhibited is
observational
Chunking is associated with
short-term memory
Photographic memory is also called
eidetic memory
Which of the following describes your ability to identify the name of your first grade teacher in a newspaper article?
recognition
Psychologist George Miller discovered that short-term memory is limited to about
seven items
Which of the following describes your ability to identify the sound of a musical instrument you have heard before?
recognition
The three memory processes are
encoding, storage, and retrieval
HOMES, an acronym for the five Great Lakes (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior) is an example of a
mnemonic device
The three types of memory are
sensory, short-term, and long-term
A child who speaks in sentences, but does not use articles or prepositions is exhibiting
telegraphic speech
Who first proposed that children are born with an innate capacity for language?
Noam Chomsky
___ is the first stage of language development
cooing/babbling
___ proposed that children learn language as a result of reinforcement
B.F. Skinner
In Harry Harlow's study, the baby monkeys preferred
the cloth mother
The "hierarchy of needs" was developed by
Abraham Maslow
Which of the following is a self-actualization need
fulfilling ones own potential
The sympathetic system
energizes the body for activity
The tendency of organisms to return to or maintain a normal state is called
homeostasis
Abraham Maslow refers to biological drives, including the need for physical safety and security as
fundamental
The Cannon-Bard theory proposed that
the brain arouses the body and triggers emotions simultaneously
The ___ theory is a homeostatic theory of emotional reactions
opponent-process
Incentive theory stresses the role of the ___ in motivating behavior
environment
A test designed to measure management ability is found to be a very good predictor of how well an individual will function as a manager. This test is said to be
valid
A college admissions test designed to find out whether an individual would make a good architecture student based on the skills that person has is an example of an
aptitude test
When an algebra teacher gives a test to her class to measure how much algebra her students have learned, she is giving an
achievement test
A test that is administered twice to the same person with very different results cannot be called
reliable
The Stanford-Binet test measures intelligence in terms of
mental age
A test that is designed to predict how successful and happy a student might be in a particular career is called an
interest inventory
According to Sigmund Freud, the part of the psyche that stops a person from stealing is the
superego
Thinking that someone is angry at you when in reality you are angry at yourself is called
projection
Marty frequently becomes angry at his wife. The real object of his anger is his mother. This defense mechanism is called
displacement
A three-year-old child who has been toilet trained starts wetting the bed after the birth of a sibling. This child is using the defense mechanism of
regression
Mrs. Smith exhibits strong feelings of love toward her child, although unconsciously she is very angry at the child. She is displaying the defense mechanism of
reaction formation
Rewards and punishments are associated with
behavioral psychology
Abraham Maslow deliberately tried to establish an alternative to psychoanalysis and behaviorism called
humanistic psychology
Which of the following does not describe the self-actualizing individual?
self-centered
___ can be described as people who are thoughtful, passive, and quiet
introvert
According to Sigmund Freud, human personality includes all of the following except
collective unconscious
Freud was the first modern psychologist to suggest that
every personality has a large unconscious component
The methods by which the ego unconsciously protects itself against unpleasant circumstances are called
defense mechanisms
According to Carl Rogers, every person has which two parts?
the person and self
B.F. Skinner's approach to personality is based on
behaviorism
Who of the following defined a self-actualized person
Abraham Maslow
Which of the following is a term used by Carl Rogers
all of the above (fully functioning, unconditional positive regard, conditions of worth)
Your level of stress is influenced by your ____, which involves your immediate evaluation of a situation.
Primary appraisal
Tony, a young boy, wants to pet a friend's dog, but he is afraid that the dog will bite him. This is a(n) ___ conflict.
Approach-avoidance
Which of the following does NOT characterize Type A people
toleration for delay
Eustress is a term that means
positive stress
The sequence of the general adaptation syndrome is
alarm, resistance, exhaustion
Stressful situations experienced for a long time may weaken your
immune system
The ___ person is less vulnerable to stress
Type B
Axis II of DSM-IV is used to describe
developmental disorders
The difference between a mild psychological disorder and abnormality is
abnormality is any deviation from the average or from the majority. mild psychological disorders are annoying and hard to function properly in society
___ is a reaction to vague or imagined dangers.
anxiety
General symptoms of ___ include breathing difficulties, faintness or dizziness, nausea, and chest pains
panic disorder
Which of the following is NOT suspected of causing generalized anxiety disorder?
brain tumors
Physical symptoms of ___ include muscular tension, an inability to relax, a furrowed brow, and a strained face
general anxiety disorder
A person who is extremely afraid of darkness suffers from
a specific phobia
A common treatment for phobias is to
systematic desensitization
A person who experiences uncontrollable thought patterns and performs irrational actions suffers from
obsessive-compulsive disorder
A victim of a physical assault who relives the event repeatedly in his or her mind may be suffering from
post-traumatic stress disorder
Psychologists today use the term ___ instead of hysteria
somatoform disorder
Dissociative amnesia most often results from
a traumatic event
A person who suddenly and unexpectedly travels away from home and cannot recall the past is experiencing
dissociative fugue
People with dissociative identity disorder usually
suffered abuse as children
A person who cannot walk because of psychological distress rather than any psychical cause is suffering from
conversion disorder
Dissociative disorders are
when a person experiences alterations in memory, identity, or consciousness
___ schizophrenia involves delusions of grandeur and persecution
paranoid
Schizophrenia affects approximately ___ of the population worldwide
1 percent
Symptoms of ___ drugs range from nausea and "the shakes," to hallucinations, convulsions, coma, and death
withdrawal from
Individuals who have ___ disorder are basically thrill seekers who feel no shame or guilt if they injure other people or break social rules
anti-social
A ___ personality is characterized by a distrust of others and a perception that others have evil motives
paranoid
A person addicted to drugs develops a ___ that requires ever increasing doses to achieve the same "high."
tolerance
Which type of psychotherapy is based on the belief that emotional problems arise when an individual's assumptions are unrealistic?
humanistic
Which of the following is used in the treatment of bipolar disorder?
lithium
A therapist who follows the theories of Sigmund Freud is likely to encourage patients to talk about everything that comes to mind. This method is called
free association
The study of how our thoughts, feelings, perceptions, and behaviors are influenced by our interaction with others is the domain of
social psychology
A social trap occurs when individuals in a group decide
not to cooperate
The tendency to assume that someone else will handle emergencies when more than one person is present is called
bystander effect
Which of the following refers to the tendency to perform better in the presence of a group
social facilitation
The key factor in forming a group is
similar interests
A pacifist who has been drafted is against killing yet believes in obeying the laws. He or she is probably experiencing
cognitive dissonance
The object of brainwashing is to
creating a new person with different attitudes
You believe all conservative people to be cold and aloof. When you meet a conservative you keep your distance, then the person seems to act cold toward you. This is an example of
self-fulfilling prophecy
A psychologist studying such matters as how to select a trial jury or the reliability of eyewitnesses would most likely be a ___ psychologist
cognitive psychologist
Applied psychologists search for ___ to psychological problems
applied research is scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
Which of the following focuses on the role psychological functions play in the physical well-being of an individual?
clinical psychology