22 terms

Chapter 22 - Development of Foreign Policy


Terms in this set (...)

Foreign Policy
strategies and goals that guide a nation's relations with other countries and groups; long term goals of a policy remain constant for a nation's foreign policy
National Security
The goal of american foreign policy is to preserve the security of the U.S; National security is the protection of the nations borders and territories against invasion; ALL parts of foreign policy is related to the nation's security
Free and Open Trade
nations must also maintain trade with other nations in todays global economy; foreign policy deals with trade and preserving access to necessary natural resources
World Peace
American leaders work for world peace using national security because it may aid in national security
Democratic Governments
US aids democratic nations and helps others create democratic political systems
Development of Foreign policy
isolationism - avoiding involvement in world affairs; internationalism - involvement in world affairs is necessary for national security
Washington urged americans to follow a path of isolationism; Monroe doctrine extended the meaning of isolationism (people cannot colonize the western hemisphere)
US as a world Power
U.S was becoming an industrial power by 1890s; leaders began to believe that the U.S should play a more active role in world affairs
Two World Wars
isolationist sentiment was still strong when WWI began; Americans returned to isolationism after WWI -> everyone wanted to avoid further involvement in european political affairs but ruthless dictators came to power during these years; Pearl harbor drew us into the war, and ever since WWII, foreign policy has been based on internationalism
Cold War
U.S. emerged from WWII as leader of the free nations; Soviet Union had established control over the governments of eastern european countries; communists seized control of china -> this convinced american leaders that communist aggression must be stopped
Containment and the Truman Doctrine
George F. Kennan devised a way to keep the Soviet Union from spreading its power beyond eastern europe -> containment; Containment - responding to any action taken by soviets with a countermove by the U.S; U.S woanted to give economic aid to nations they said were threatened by a totalitarian government; truman doctorine stated that people in europe needed economic and financial aid; marshall plan gave nations of western europe more than 13 billion;cold war tensions and fears led to a costly arms race
Korean and Vietnam Wars
Containment brought the U.S. into the Korean War and Vietnam war
End of the Cold War
Soviet Union began to collapse; Berlin wall was torn down
Post-Cold Warr Foreign Policy
Cold War foreign policy did not seem well suited for dealing with the world that was evolving
Persian Gulf War
Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait; George Bush Sr. defended Kuwait by sending american troops to the region to defeat iraq
Other Interventions
1992 - american troops joined a force in Somalia to protect relief organizationsoperating during a civil war; 1994 - American troops preserved order in Haiti when the elected president was forced to flee country; 1995 amercan forces and NATO allies intervened in an ethnic warfare (croats, Serbs, and Muslims)
A New Foreign Policy Agenda
after 9/11 the foreign policy was in question
War on Terrorism
President Bush announced a war on terrorism would become the focus of his administration -> Crush al-quaeda, change afghan gov, and get rid of terrorism
Strategy of Preemption
Bush administration outlined a new strategic framework to guide american relationships with other nations; Bush says that Preemption should replace containment; Preemption - U.S will strike first with military force against any terrorist groups
Iraq War
Bush used preemption in march 2003 when the US invaded Iraq and removed the government of Saddam Hussein; congress sanctioned the war; The United Nations did not support the war and Bush says that Hussein would not cooperate with the UN; Coalition forces quickly defeated the iraqui army
Shared Foreign Policy Powers
Framers of the Constituton wanted foreign affairs to be between the president and congress; president has more responsibility in foreign policy
Presidential Powers and Responsibilities
Constitution lists certain presidential powers related to foreign policy; president functions as an important world leader