Biolagy flash cards
Terms in this set (61)
energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference.
product of translation, these will join together using peptide bonds to form a protein.
(adenosine triphosphate) One of the principal chemical compounds that living things use to store and release energy.
principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine.
type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates it's DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter cells.
uncontrolled cell growth caused by mutations in the genetic code.
organic molecule made up of simple sugars. Main structural component of plants as well as energy source for living things; made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body.
thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell.
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy.
technology that scientists use to determine gender and mutations in a living organism by analyzing the chromosomes using a karyotype.
organized structure of DNA and Protein in cells.
Complementary DNA Strand
strand of DNA that pairs with a template of the original DNA strand.
Amount of solute on one side of a membrane vs. the other.
material inside the cell membrane—not including the nucleus and organelles.
the process of joining two monomers; absorbing energy within the bonds between the two.
type of mutation in which a nitrogenous base is lost, causing a frame-shift mutation for the cell.
process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated.
molecule that stores genetic information in living things.
technology that scientists use to compare the genetic code from organisms and determine the genes that they have in common.
process by which DNA makes an exact copy of itself in the cell nucleus.
organism in the very early stages of development in the womb.
protein that acts as a biological catalyst.
Frame Shift Mutation
mutation that causes significant change to the way a DNA sequence is translated. Caused by an insertion or deletion of a single or multiple nucleotides and shifts the reading frame for RNA translation.
specialized cell involved in sexual reproduction. Sex cells (egg and sperm)
a regulated process that involves controlling the proteins produced by a gene.
the genetic make up of an organism.
term used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes and therefore only a single set of genes.
passing of traits from parents to offspring.
having two alleles for the same gene (ex. Tt)
having only one allele for a gene (ex. TT, tt)
the process of separating a polymer into its monomers; releasing energy stored within the bonds between the two.
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes.
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes.
type of mutation in which a nitrogenous base is added, causing a frame-shift mutation for the cell.
stage of the cell cycle in which the cell grows and replicates DNA and organelles.
when the concentration of two solutions is the same.
macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes.
process that produces gametes in eukaryotic cells.
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
RNA copy of the DNA code that is transcribed in the nucleus. This will travel to the ribosome for protein synthesis.
cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.
asexual cell division in eukaryotes.
change in the genetic code. Can be caused by many external factors.
part of a nucleotide responsible for carrying information. Includes Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine in DNA. RNA contains Uracil instead of Thymine.
macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus.
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
structure that contains the cell's genetic material and controls the cell's activities.
diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
diffusion of molecules through a protein channel or across a semi-permeable membrane; does not require energy.
the physical characteristics that an organism exhibits.
element or compound produced by a chemical reaction.
a single celled organism lacking a nucleus.
macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes.
process in which cells manufacture or build proteins.
nucleic acid used in eukaryotic cells for protein synthesis.
substance that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution.
substance in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution.
reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction.
first step of protein synthesis. DNA code is transferred to a mRNA copy inside of the nucleus.
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
carries amino acids to ribosomes in protein synthesis.
second step of protein synthesis. tRNA carries amino acids to ribosomes in the order specified by the mRNA codons.
initial cell formed when two gametes (egg and sperm) join.
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