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233 terms

Assessment, Diagnosis & Treatment

STUDY
PLAY
Malingering
The intentional creation of false or grossly exaggerated physical or psychological symptoms, motivated by external incentives such as avoiding work., Patient consciously fakes of claims to have a disorder in order to attain a specific secondary gain (avoiding work, obtaining drugs). Avoids treatment by medical personnel. Complaints cease after gain (vs. factitious disorder)
Presenting Problem
Original complaint reported by the client to the therapist. The actual treated problem may be a modification derived from the this, Consists of the perceived symptoms and overt issues or difficulties that, according to the client, constitute the problems of which she has sought help. May not be the actual problems or the program that needs attention - i.e., it may be a distortion of the actual problem or a matter that the client feels safer disclosing or the client and her family may misunderstand the problem or not understand it fully. Nevertheless, a social work should "start where the client is" during an assessment and focus initially on eliciting the present problem.
Achievement Test
Test designed to assess the present level of skill in or knowledge of a particular content domain. Is usually considered a measure of previous learning but may also assess innate characteristics
Addiction
A term that may be applied to any substance, activity, behavior, or object that has become the major focus of a person's life to the exclusion of other activities or that has begun to harm the individual of other physically, psychologically and/or socially
ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)
It is a medial term used to involving hyperactivity, attention difficulties, and impulsiveness. In children it's 4-9 times more common in boys. Treatment is a CNS stimulant (methylphenidate) and behavioral and cognative-behavioral techniques.
Agoraphobia
An anxiety disorder invovling anxiety about being in situations of places from which escape might be difficult or embarrassing or in which help might not be available if a panic attact or panic-like symptoms occur. Treatment of choice is in vivo exposure with reponse prevention (flooding).
AIDS Demetia Complex
Impairment of cognitive functioning due to infections of the centeral nervous system related to HIV disease. The symptoms fluctuate from day to day severe symptoms include grandiosity, poor impulse control, memory loss, aimless wandering and disorientation.
Amphetamine or Cocaine Intoxication
Symptoms include euphoria, anxiety, paranoid ideation, tachycardia, dilated pupils, perspiration, confusion and seizures.
Anaclitic Depression
Withdrawal, depression and development delays resulting from the loss of an attachment figure during infancy, especially when the loss occurs during the second half of the first year of life.
Anorexia Nervosa
An eating disorder involving a refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight; intense fear of gaining weight; disturbed perception of one's body shape and size; and in females amenorrhea. Over 90% are female; onset is typically in adolescence. Treatment includes contingency management, cognitive therapy and family therapy.
Antecident
Something that proceeds a behavior e.g. a fire alarm, sign on a door.
Anterograde Amnesia
A loss of memory for events and information subsequent to a trauma or other event that precipitated the amnisia. It involves an inability to form new memories.
Anxiety
Freud; It's a factor in both normal personality functioning and pathological behaviors. He distinguished between three types: Reality (objective) , Neurotic, and Moral. All serve to alert the ego to the presence of external or internal threats and involves excitation of the autonomic nervous system.
Aphasia
Impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to wernicke's area (impairing understanding).
Appropriate Affect
A person is in touch with his emotions and can express them as he feels them in response to specific emotional or situational stimuli.
Aptitude Test
A test designed to predict a person's future performance.
Asperger's Disorder
Severe impairments in social interactions and a restricted repertoire of behaviors and activities. No delays in language, self help skills, cognitive development or curiosity about the environment.
Assessment
A process by which social workers explore and attempt to attain a comprehensive understanding of a client's problems and needs including relevant personal and situational factors. Allows for appropriate intervention goals to be established. Social Workers believe that they should continue throughout the helping process and that an important focus should be the problem the client considers important.
Autistic Disorder
A pervasive developmental disorder characterized by qualitative impairment in social interaction; qualitative impairment in communication; and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors. About 4-5 times more common in males, Treatment involves educational interventions and the use of behavioral techniques (e.g. shaping and discrimination training for communication)
Aversive Counterconditioning (Aversion Therapy)
Behavioral therapy that reduces the attractiveness of a stimulus of behavior by repeatedly pairing it with a stimulus that produces and undesirable or unpleasant response. Pairing alcohol consumption with electric shock to reduce alcohol use is an example. In this situation, the alcohol is the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the electric shock is the unconditioned stimulus (US)
Avoidance Personality Disorder
A personality disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of social inhabition, feelings of inadequacy and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation
Bayley Scale of Infant Development (BSID)
Instrument used to test cognitive and motor skills of infant age 2 months to 30 months. The BSID is predicitive of cognitive problems if the scores are significantly below average.
Beck Depression Inventory-II
Measure of the depth of a person's depression or the severity of his complaints, symptoms, and concerns related to his current level of depression. May be used with individuals age 13 and older with at least an 8th-grade reading level. Similar tests available to assess suicide risk include the Hopelssness Scales and the Scale for Suicidal Ideation.
Behavioral Addiction
(A.K.A. "process addiction", "non-substance-related addiction".) A recurring compulsion by an individual to engage in a specific activity (e.g. shopping) despite harmful consequences as identified by the person herself, to her physical health, psychological or emotional well-being, and/or social functioning.
Behavioral Assessment
A method of behavioral evaluation in which current, specific, and observable behaviors are quantitatively and qualitatively assessed. Reflects and idiographic (individual approach) and considers observed behaviors to be "samples" rather than signs of underlying phenomena.
Behavioral Intentions
A predisposition to act in a particular way towards an attitiude object, consisting of a personal component (the person's attitude toward engaging in the behavior) and social component (the person's beliefs about what other people think he should do).
Bipolar I Disorder
A mood disorder involving the presence of at least one or more manic or mixed episodes with or without a hisotry of a major depressive episode. Lithium is the treament-of-choice for "classic" bipolar disorder. Of the mental disorders, bipolar disorder most clearly has a genetic compent.
Bipolar II Disorder
A mood disorder involving at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode.
Boarderline Personality Disorder
A personality disorder involving a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, affect, and marked impulsivity.
Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale (BNAS)
Assessment tool used with infants up to 1 month of age to assess their reflexes, muscle tone, response to stimulation, etc.
Brief Psychotic Disorder
A psychotic disorder involving delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and/or grossly disorganized behavior that is present for at least one day but less then one month. May or may not be precipitated by an overwhelming stressor.
Bulimia Nervousa
An eating disorder involving recurrent episodes of binge eating that are accompanied by a sense of lack of control; inappropriate compensatory behavior to prevent weight gain such as self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, or laxative or diuretic use; and self-evaluation that is unduly influence by body shape and weight. Treatment usually includes nutritional counseling, cognitive-behavioral therapy and in some cases antidepressants.
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
A pervasive development disorder involving a distinct pattern of regression in at least two areas of development following at least two years of normal functioning.
Clarification
A helping skill used in response to vague or unclear messages. Using this skill is apppropriate whenever the social worker doesn't understand a client's message, would like the client to become more explicit, or wishes the check his understanding of a client's message.
Closed-Ended Questions
Interview questions that elicit responses that contain either factual information or simple "yes" or "no". Used primarily in the latter portion of an interview to obtain missing factual data.
Compliance
Occurs when a person changes his behavior in order to obtain a reward or avoid a punishment. This behavior is public and does not involve a private change in opinions or attitudes. Reward and coercive power tend to work and produce a change in behavior, particularly when a person knows he is being observed.
Compulsions
Repetitious and deliberate behaviors or mental acts that the individual feels driven to perform either in response to an obsession or according to rules that must be applied rigidly. The goal of these acts is to reduce distress or prevent a dreaded situation from happening, but the acts are either excessive or are not connected in a logical way to this goal. The individual may attempt to resist but they tend to experiences anxiety and tension as the result of doing so.
Conduct Disorder
A disruptive behavior and persistent pattern of behaviors that violate the rights of others and age appropriate social rules; aggression to people and animals, bullies, threatens or intimidates others. Onset can be in children (prior to age 10) or adolescence. If over eighteen only diagnosed if criteria for antisocial personality disorder is not met.
Confabulation
Fabrication of expereinces or situations in order to fill in and cover up gaps in memory.
Confontation (Chanllenge)
Respectful and gentle efforts to help a client recognize that he is using distortions, deceptions, denials, avoidance, or manipulations that are getting in the way of desired change. The social worker challenges and invites the client to examine a thought of behavior that is self-defeating or harmful to other and to take action to change it. Efforts are generally emphasized factors that the social worker believes are contributing to the clients' problems and preventing them from making progress.
Conners' Rating Scales-Revised
Scales used to evaluate problem behavior in youth ages 3 through 17. Includes scales completed by parents and teachers and an adolescent self-report scale for clients ages 12 through 17.
Contingency Contract
A type of contingency management that involves a formal written agreement between two more people (e.g. between therapist and client, parent and child, teacher and students) that clearly defines the behaviors that are to be modified and the rewards and punshiments that will follow perfromance of those behaviors. Behavioral changes may be requried by one or all parties to the contact.
Conversion Disorder
A somatoform disorder characterized by symptoms that suggest a serious neurological or other medical condition (e.g. paralysis, blindness, loss of pain sensation). But for which no medical explanation can be found. Traditionally, conversion disorder has been traced to two etiological mechanisms: primary gain (keeping an inner conflict out of consciousness) and secondary gain (avoiding an unpleasant activity or obtaining support). Symptoms are not voluntarily produced and are usually alleviated under hypnosis or in an amytal interview.
Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence
Two types of general intelligence described by Horn and Cattell. One type refers to acquired knowledge and skills and is affected by educational and cultural experiences, whereas a second type enables an individual to solve novel problems and to perceive relations and similarities and does not depend on specific instruction.
Cultural Encapsulation
Refers to the tendecy of therapist and counselors to interpret everyone's reality through thier own cultural assumptions and stereotypes.
Culture-Bond Syndrome
Locality specific patterns of aberrant behavior and troubling experience that may or may not be symptomatically associated with a DSM-IV-TR diagnostic category. Within a given culture, the pattern may be viewed as an "illness" or merely and "affliction". When this syndrome may be considered a diagnostic formulation, the DSM includes the relevant categories. Differential diagnosis then depends on the client's constellation of symptoms and level of disability and the nature of the events that precipitated the symptoms.
Cycle of Violence (Walker)
A three-stages of violence that describes most abusive spousal/partner relationships. Includes tension building, acute battering incident, and loving-contrition ("honeymoon").
Cyclothymic Disorder
A mood disorder characterized by fluctuating hypomanic symptoms and numerous periods of depressive symptoms for at least two years in adults or one year in children or adolescents.
Delirium
A disturbance in consciousness accompained by either a change in cognition (e.g. loss of memory, disorientation and/or perceptual abnormalities. Can be caused by a general medical condition or substance us. Symptoms usually develop rapidly and fluctuate over time.
Delirium Tremens or "DTS" (Alcohol Withdrawl Delirium)
Distrubance in consciousness and other cognitive functions, autonomic hyperactivity, vivid hallucinations, delusions, and agitiation. Associated with prolonged or heavy alcohol use.
Delusions
False beliefs that are firmly held despite what other people believe and/or the exsitence of clear and indisputable evidence to the contrary.
Dementia
A distrubance involving some degree of memory impairment and at least one other cognitive impairment (aphsia, apraxia, agnosia, disturbance in executive functioning). Can be caused by a general medcial condition or substatance use. Onset is usually insidious and course is progressive.
Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type
This form involves a gradual onset of symptoms and a slow progressive decline in cognitive functioning. Early symptoms ordinarliy include deficits in recent memory and personality change or irritability. Late onset (after 65) is more common than early onset. A definitive diagnosis requires a brain biopsy.
Diabetes Mellitus (Type 1 and Type 2 and Gestational Diabetes)
A disorder involving a build up of glucose in the blood as the result of hypoinsulinism. Forms include type 1, type 2, and gestational (developing during pregancy). Type 1 is an autoimmune disorder. Its symptoms develop quickly and may include increased thirst and urination, constant hunger, wieght loss, blurred vision, extreme fatigue, nausea, frequent urination, increased thirst, wieght loss, blurred vision, frequent infections, slow healing of wounds, and cognitive symptoms similar to those occuring in type 1. Type 2 is associated with obesity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, low levels of physical activity, and older age. Due to increased rates of obesity among young people, however, type 2 is becoming more common among children, adolescents, and young adults.
Diathesis-Stress Model
A model of certain mental disorders that attributes them to a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental stress factors.
Direct Assessment of Suicide
Questioning a client directly about her intent to commit sucide with an emphasis on three indicators that directly suggest an elevated and more imminent risk of a suicide attempt - i.e., intent, plan, means. Risk to life is highest when a client has both a concrete, lethal suicide plan and the means available to carry it out.
Direct Practice
Social work activites, such as individual therapy, family therapy, and group therapy, in which treatment goals are reached through personal contact and direct influence with clients.
Dissociative Amnesia
A disorder involving one or more episodes of an inability to recall important personal information that cannot be attributed to ordinary forgetfulness. The gaps in memory are often related to a traumatic event.
Down Syndrome
Autosomal disorder usually caused by the presence of an extra chromosome 21. The cause of 10 to 30 percent of all cases of mild to moderate retardation. Associated with physical abnormalities including slanted, almond-shaped eyes, heart lesions, catarcts, and respiratory defects.
Dual Diagnosis
Term used when a client has both a major psychiatric disorder, such as a psychotic or mood disorder, and substance abuse or dependence.
Dysthymic Disorder
A mood disorder involving a chronically depressed mood that is present most of the time for at least two years in adults or one year in children or adolescents.
Enuresis
An elimination disorder characterized by repeated voiding of urine during the day or night into the bed or clothes that is usually involuntary but can be intentional and is not due to a general medical condition or substance use. Primary treatment is the bell-and-pad (night alarm)
Ethnocentrism
Belief that one's own culture, ethnic or racial group, or nation is superior to others.
Existential Crisis
When questions (Why are we here? Who made us?) consume us, inner conflicts and anxieties about living (e.g. Mid-life crisis).
Fact-Gathering Interview
Interview conducted when a client first contacts an agency: involves gathering predetermined and specific information for the client.
Factitious Disorder
A disorder characterized by the presence of physcial or psychological symptoms that are intentionally produced or feigned (fake) apparently for the purpose of fulfilling an intrapsychic need to adopt the sick role.
Factitious Disorder by Proxy (Munchaunsen's Syndrome by Proxy)
Involves the intentional production of symptoms in a child by her parent or other caregiver. Warning signs for this disorder include recurrent inexplicable illnesses in a child, a lack of symptoms in the child when the parent is absent, and the presence of diagnostic results that are inconsistent with the child's symptoms.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
Caused by exposure to alcohol during prenatal development and may produce a variety of physical, behavioral, and cognitive symptoms depending on the amount consumed by the pregnant women. Symptoms are largely irreversible and include facial deformities, retarded physical growth, heart defects, mental retardation, hyperactivity, and irritability. Risk is highest, and symptoms are most severe, when the mother drinks heavily every day or, in the early stages of pregnancy, engages in binge drinking.
Flight of Ideas
A verbal presentation in which the client's responses seem to "take off" based on a particular word or thought, unrelated to any logical progression or the original point of the communication.
Focusing Responses
Social work interview techniques use to keep the conversation from wandering or jumping from one subject to another.
Formative Evaluation (Direct Practice Evaluation)
Evaluation use to guide ongoing practice decisions. A tool for monitoring an intervention and identifying when one needs to modify a planned intervention.
General Adaptation Syndrome
According to Selye, the human response to stress is mediated by adrenal-pituitary secretions (e.g., cortisol) and involves three stages: alarm retraction, resistance, and exhaustion. The model predicts that prolonged stress can result in illness or death.
Genogram
An assesment tool used to obtain and record information about a client's family patterns and history. Provides a schematic diagram of the family system describing at least three generation of family relationships, geographical locations, and siginificant life events.
Goals and Objectives (Direct Practice)
An outcome sought by the social worker and client and is generally phrased as a broad statement that describes the desired outcome. Behaviors that are discrete steps that will be taken to achieve the desired outcome and are defined a series of behavioral changes that must take places in order to reach a goal and are more specific than goals and are always written in manner that facilitates measurement and evaluation.
Goodness-of-fit Model (Thomas and Chess
Proposes that behavioral and adjustment outcomes are best for children when parents' caregiving behaviors match the child's temperament
Hallucinations
Sensory perceptions occurring without external stimulation of the associated sensory organ.
Hazardous Event (Crisis)
An initial shock that disrupts a person's equilibrium and initiates a series of reactions that may culminate in a crisis. It may be anticipated (e.g. marriage, retirement) or unanticipated (e.g., the unexpected death of a family member).
Hemispheric Specialization
Although the left and right hemispheres of the brain are both involved to some degree in most functions, they tend to specialized. The left (dominant) hempisphere dominate in verbal activities (e.g., spontaneous speaking and writing, memory for words and numbers); analytical, logical thought; and postive emotional states. The right (nondominant) hemisphere dominates in visual-spatial activities such as facial recognition, spatial interprretation, and memory for shapes and in negative emotions.
HIV/AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)
A viral disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, which may be transmitted by sexual contact, blood-to-blood contact, and from a pregnant women to her unborn child, it suppresses the body's immune system and, therefore, results in a vulnerability to a range of opportunistic infections including Kaposi's sarcoma (a form of cancer) and a rare from of pneumonia. These diseases are known as opportunistic infections because they take advantage of a compromised immune system that is no longer able to fight them off.
Hospitalism
A term used by Spitz to describe the syndrome found in infants who have been separated from their mothers or other primary caregiver. Symptoms include listlessness, unreponsiveness, indifference, and retarded growth.
Human Plasticity
The concept that variations in the evironment can affect a person's personality, cognivite and social functioning, and physcial and mental health, independent of her genetic endowment. Describes one way that the environment can influence development over the lifespan.
Huntington's Disease
Inhereited disorder characterized by dementia, chorea (involuntary tremors, twitching), and althetosis (slow writhing movements).
Hypertention
The "Primary (essential)" diagnoses is when high blood pressure is not due to a known physiological cause, while the "Secondary" diagnoses is when elevated blood pressure is related to a known disease. Primary diagnoses account for about 85 to 90 present of all cases of high blood pressure; untreated, it can leas to cardiovascular disease, and it is a major cause of heart failure, kidney failure, and stroke. High risk is associated with gender (males), obesity, cigarette smoking, excessive use of salt and genetic (e.g. African-American heritage).
Hyperthyroidism
A condition caused by hyper-secretion of thyroxin by the thyroid gland the pancreases and characterized by a speeded-up metabolism, elevated body temperature, accelerated heart rate, increased appetite with weight loss, nervousness, and insomnia.
Hypoglycemia
Low blood glucose, a condition caused by excessive secretion of insulin by the pancreas and characterized by hunger, dizziness, headaches, blurred vision, palpitations, anxiety, depression, and confusion.
Hypomanic Episode
A distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood that last for at least four days and is accompanied by at least three of the symptoms associated with a manic episode. The episode represents a clear change in mood and functioning but (in contrast to a manic episode) is not sufficiently severe to cause marked impairment in functioning or to require hospitalization, and there is an absence of psychotic symptoms.
Hypothyroidism
A condition caused by hypo-secretion of thyroxin and characterized by a slowed metabolism, slowed hear rate, lethargy, lowered body temperature, impaired concentration and memory, and depression.
Identified Patient
The family member who is identified by the family as bearing the symptom and has typically been labeled by the family as "crazy" or "sick."
Incompetent (Mentally)
Definitions varies from state to state, but they generally require that a person be incapcitated in some way, and as result of that incapacity, the person must be unable to care for herself or manage her own property. In order to establish this, there must be evidence of mental or physical impairment and evidence of impaired social skills and adaptive behavior. An adult who is assumed incapcitated must be proven incapcitated before he is denied his right to make his own decisions.
Indirect Practice
Soical work activities undertaken to provide services more effectively and efficienctly and to bring about changes in policies, programs, or budget. Activities do not involve personal contact with clients and usually are undertaken with a committe, coalition, or other group.
Information and Referral Service (I & R)
Agnecy (or office wtihin an agency) that notifies individuals about existing programs, resources (including referrals to other services), and benefits and how to obtain and use them.
Information Interview
Social work interview used to obtain data for a soical history in order to facilitate appropriate dicisions about the kinds of services that social worker or agency should offer a cleint. Rather than collecting comprehensive information about a client's life history, the worker focuses on obtaining background information related to the problem, includeing objective facts and subjective feelings and attitudes.
Insanity
A legal term referring to a defendant's lack of ability to distinguish between right and wrong. Applies when a person has committed a crime while under the influence of a mental disorder that inhibits the knowledge that such an act was wrong or the ability to refrain from doing it.
Instrumental Activities of Daily Living
Skills beyond basic self-care that evaluate how individuals function in their homes, workplace, and soical enviornments.
Intake Procedures
Procedures used by social agencies to make initial contacts with clients productive and helpful. The social work emphasizes obtaining preliminary information from the client in order to determine whether he can work with the client or should refer him to a more suitable agency for professional.
Activities of Daily Living (ADL's)
Social worker refer to the ability or inahbility to perform selfcare as a measurement of a person's functional status. The criterias are particulary useful for clients with physcial disabilities, those who are elderly and/or people with serious mental disorders.
Learning Disorders
Diagnosed when there is a substantial discripancy between IQ and achievement test performance (usually two standard deviations or more). Most common co-diagnosis is ADHD.
Life Cycle Matrix
Assessment tool used to graphically depict the development stage of all individuals in a household.
Locus of Control ("internal & external locus of control")
A construct developed by Rotter to describe the extent to which an individual believes that life events are under his own control or under the control of external forces. The research suggest that "high internals" attribute their success to intrinsic factors and are more achievement-oriented, self-confident, and willing to work hard to achieve personal goals; are less anxious, suspicious, and dogmatic; and tend to be better adjusted than "high externals."
Lithium
Drug used to alleviate mania and mood swings in bipolar disorder, can be toxic and blood levels need to be monitored. Retention of this drug is affected by the body's sodium levels and users must make sure their levels do not fluctuate. Early signs of toxicity include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, sedation, slurred speech, coordination problems, and confusion.
Linkage
Bringing together the resources of various agencies, personnel, etc., and coordinating their efforts on behalf of a client or social objective.
Life History Grid
Assessment tool used to graphically depict significant events in a client's life and the development of significant problems over time. Allows you to organize and depict data related to various periods in a clients' life
Major Depressive Disorder
A mood disorder that involves one or more major depressive episodes without a history of manic, hypomanic, or mixed episodes. A major depressive episode requires the presence of characteristic symptoms (e.g. depressed mood and /or a loss of interest or enjoyment in customary activities) for the least two weeks. This disorder is about twice as common in females as males. Treatment most commonly involves the use of an antidepressant and/or cognitive therapy.
Major Depressive Episode
Characterized by a depressed mood and/or loss of interest or pleaseure in nearly all activities. It includes at least five of the following symptoms (with at least one symptom being being a depressed mood or loss of interest of pleasure): (1) Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day as reported by the client or observed by others (in children of adolescents, can be an irritable mood); (2) diminished interest or pleasure in all or nearly all activities; (3) significant weight loss (without dieting) or weight gain and a decrease or increase in appetite nearly every day; (4) sleep disturbances (insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day); (5) psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day; (6) fatigue or loss of energy nerarly every day; (7) feelings of worthlessness or excesie or inapprrtopriate guilt nearly every day; (8) impared ability to think or concentrate or indecisiveness nearly every day; and/or (9) recurrent thoughts of death, succideal ideation without a specific plan, or a suicide attempt or specific plan for committing sucide.
Malingering
One of DSM's "other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention." Involves the intentional production of feigning of symptoms for the purpose of obtaining an external reward.
Manic Episode
A distinct period, lasting at least one week, of abnormanlly and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood. At least three characteristic signs are present: inflated self-esteem or grandiosity; decresed need for sleep; more talkative or pressure to keep talking; flight of ideas or a sense that one's thoughts are racing; distractibility; increase in goal-directed activity or psychomotor agititation; and/or excessive involvement in pleasureable acivities that have a high potiential for painful consequences. Also associated with significant impariment of occupational or social functioning; or a need for hospitalization to prevent harm to self or others; or psychotic features.
MAOI's (Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors)
Antidepresents durgs that inhibit the enzyme that deatctiviates dopamine, norepiniphrine, and serotonin. MAOIs appear to be most effective for treating non-endogenous and atypical depressions. Side-effects include anticholnergic effects, insomnia, agitation, confusion, and wieght gain. when taken in conjuction with other drugs or foods containing tyramine, they can cause a hypertensive crisis.
Masked Depression
A form of depression in which physical symptoms (pain, paresthesias, anorexia, etc.) predominate, and the individual often denies experiencing a depressed mood.
Maturational (Developmental) Crises
A crisis in which the origin is embedded in maturational processes - i.e., the person struggles with an anticipated transition from one life stage or role to another.
Means Test
Process used to evalute a person's financial means or well-being based on his income, debts, health, number of dependants, etc. The results are used to determine the person's eligibility to recieve a benefit and if the person can pay for the services he is seeking, he will be turned down. Examples of federal progams and services include Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), the Food Stamp Program, and Medcaid.
Mental Retardation
A development disorder requiring significantly subaverage intellectual functioning (IQ = 70 or below); impairments in adaptive functioning; and most prior to age 18. There are four subtypes; mild, moderate, serve, and profound.
Mental Status Exam
Evaluation of a client's current mental functioning, includes evaluation of behavior and cognitive aspects. Information is collected though observation and questions. The assessment can help to recognize key symptoms and when to refer clients for psychiatric evaluations and evaluation of medical problems (including neurological problems) that affect psychological functioning.
Methylphenidate (Ritalin)
Psychostimulant drug used to treat ADHD. Common side-effect include dysphoria, decreased appetite, insomnia, and growth suppression.
Milan Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III)
Self-report inventory used to assess lasting personality trait and acute clinical states. Is appropriate for individuals age 18 and over with at least an 8th-grade reading comprehension level. For adolescents (age 13 to 19) whose reading ability is at a or above the 6th-grade level, MACI is available.
Minnestoa Multiphasic Personality Invetory (MMPI-2)
Self-report personality test that reports and examinee's performance in terms of clinical scales and validity scales. Although originally intended as a tool for deriving psychiatric diagnosis, is now more commonly interpreted in terms of score profiles to derive information about an examinee's personality characteristics. For adolescents (age 14 to 18), the MMPI-A is available.
Mixed Episode
A period of at least one week in which the criteria are met for both a manic and major depressive episode nearly every day; there are rapidly alternating symptoms of manic an major depressive episodes, the disturbance is sufficiently severe to cause marked impairment in social or occupational function, hospitalization is require or, alternatively, includes psychotic symptoms.
Mnemonics (Method of Loci, Keyword Method)
They are memory strategies that rely on imagery, organizations, and other techniques. The method of loci that employs imagery in which items to be remembered are mentally placed, one by one, in pre-memorized (familiar) locations; recall involves mentally "walking through" the location and retrieving the items. The keyword method, another imagery technique, is useful for paired associate tasks in which tow words must be linked.
Mood Stabelizing Drugs (Lithium, Anticonvulsant drugs)
Drugs used to alleviate mania and mood swings in bipolar disorder and include lithium and anticonvulsants (e.g., carbamazepine). Lithium is usually the drug-treatment-of-choice for classic bipolar, while an anticonvulsant drug may be more effective for patient who experience rapid mood swing or who have dysphonic mania.
Motivation, Capcity, and Opportunity
A client's motivation to change, capacity for change, opportunity to change have a significant impact on the success of the planned change process. Motivation refers to a state of readiness to take action; capacity refers to the abilities and resources that the client or people in her environment bring the change process; and opportunity refers to conditions and circumstances within the client's immediate environment that support positive change.
Multi-Axial Assessment System
DSM-IV-TR's diagnostic system is referred to as a multi-axial assessment system, which means that when using DSM-IV-TR a client's condition may be descried in terms of five dimensions or axis: (1) Axis I is used to record clinical disorders(s) and other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention (with the exception of borderline intellectual functioning, which is recorded on Axis II). (2) Axis II is used to record mental retardation and personality disorder. (3) Axis III is used to record current general medical conditions that my affect the understanding or treatment of the client's mental disorder. (4) Axis IV is used to record psychosocial and environmental problems that may affect the diagnosis, treatment, or prognosis of the client's mental disorder, (5) Axis V is used to record an assessment of the client's current overall functioning using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale. Assessment of current functioning facilitates treatment planning, the measurement of treatment effects, and the prediction of treatment outcome.
Munchausen's Syndrome by Proxy
See factitious disorders by proxy
Naroclepsy
A sleep disorder that involves irresistible attacks of restorative sleep accompanied by either cataplexy (loss of muscle tone) or an intrusion of REM sleep during the transition between sleep and wakefulness.
Narcotic-Analagescis
The drugs classified as opioids have both sedative and analgesic properties. Medically used for the same reasons they were used centuries ago - i.e., as a treatments for diarrhea, and cough suppressants. Chronic use of a results in tolerance and psychological and physical dependence, Withdrawal symptoms resemble those associated with a bad case of the flu.
Needs
Physical, psychological, economic, cultural, and social requirements for survival fulfillment, and well-being.
Needs Assessment
Technique used to identify the nature, incidence, and prevalence of a condition or problem in a community in order to determine the adequacy of existing services and resources for addressing the condition or problem. Results should provide information about the quantity (does the level of service meet the need?), the quality (are the services effective?), and the direction of existing services (e.g., are services delivery approaches appropriate to the real needs of clients?). The most useful approach is survey research.
Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia
See positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia
Neuroimanging Techniques
Techniques that make it possible to study both the structure and function of the living brain. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are structural techniques. Positron-emission tomography (PET), single proton emission computed tomography (SPECT), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) provide information on the functional activities of the brain.
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)
A rare, but potentially fatal side-effect of the antipsychotic drugs. It involves a rapid onset of motor, mental, and autonomic symptoms including muscle rigidity, tachycardia, hyperthermia, and altered consciousness. To avoid a potentially fatal outcome, the drug must be stopped as soon as symptoms develop.
Neuron
The nerve cell specialized for the conduction of electrochemical signals that carry information from one part of the body to another (e.g. from the brain to the muscles, from sensory organs to the brain). Is made up dendrites, the soma (cell body), and an axon.
Neuropsychological Tests
Used when brain degeneration or damage is suspected and to determine the nature of the impairment produced by brain pathology.
Neurotransmitters (Acetylcholine, Dopamine, Serotonin, GABA)
They are chemical substance that are released for axon terminals, diffuse across synapses, and excite or inhibits receptor sites on postsynaptic nerve cells. (1) Acetylcholine mediated neuromuscular transmission, parasympathetic arousal, and memory (e.g. memory loss in Alzheimer's' dementia). (2) Dopamine is involved in inhibitory motor regulations and motivational/emotional functions. Insufficient dopamine in the basal ganglia is believed to underlie Parkinson's disease; excessive activity at dopamine receptors has been linked to schizophrenia and Tourette's disorder. (3) Serotonin ordinarily inhibits behaviors and is involved in the regulation of mood, hunger, arouse, sleep, temperature, and pain and in the affective disorder, schizophrenia, and OCD. (4) GABA is the most common inhibitory neurotransmitter and is believed to be involved in anxiety, sleep, and seizures. Low levels of GABA in the motor region are associated with Huntington's disease.
Newborn Reflexes
Reflexes are unlearned responses to particular stimuli and the environment. Early reflexes include the Babinski reflex (toes fan out and upward when soles or the feet are tickled) and the Moro reflex (flings arms and legs outward and then toward the body in response to a loud noise or sudden loss of physical support).
Normalizing
A form of information giving used to place a client's problem in a new context by defining it as expectable or predictable rather than pathological. With the parents of a defiant toddler, for example, a social worker could explain the behavior that are expected during this developmental stage.
Norms
The standard rules of conduct used by groups to maintain uniformity of behavior among group members, they may be formal (codified or written) or informal (unwritten but "understood" by group members). They do not govern all aspects of behavior, only those considered by the group to be important for effective group functioning; In addition, usually apply to behavior not to personal feelings and thoughts
NOS (Not Otherwise Specified)
[Class of Disorder] May be used to code diagnostic uncertainty about a client's condition on Axis I or Axis II. Used when there isn't adequate information to know that a disorder belongs to a particular class of disorder (e.g., a depressive mood disorder) but further specification is not possible. This can happen because (1) you have insufficient information to make a more specific diagnosis within the class of disorders or (2) the clinical features of the disorder don't meet the full criteria for a specific diagnosis with in the class of disorder.
Noticie of Privacy Practices (NPP)
A consent form require under HIPPA's privacy rule.
Object Permanence (Object Concept)
The understanding that objects continue to exist when they are no longer detectable by the senses (e.g., when they are out of sight), emerges at the end of Piaget's sensorimotor stage of development.
Objective
Uninfluenced by personal feelings, interpretations, or prejudice; based on facts; unbiased, not subjective.
Obsessions
Persistent thoughts, impulses, or images that an individual experiences as senseless or intrusive and that cause marked distress. The thoughts are not simply excessive worries about real-life problems, and the person may attempt to ignore, suppress, or neutralize them with other thoughts or actions.
Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder
An anxiety disorder involving recurrent obsessions and/or compulsions. About equally common in males and females. Is commonly treated with in vivo exposure and the tricyclic clomipramine.
Open-Ended Questions
Interview questions that define a topic area but allow a client to respond in whatever way she choose. Effective for encouraging a client to self-disclose or expand on personal information and, thus tend to elicit valuable data.
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
A disruptive behavior disorder involving a recurrent pattern of negativistic, defiant, and hostile behaviors toward authority.
Orientation (Disorientation)
An accurate awareness of person, place, time situation, familiar object, and other people. Marked disorientation may be associated with severe mental illness, drug intoxication, or a pathological brain syndrome (e.g. delirium).
Panic Attack
A discrete period of intense apprehension, fear, or terror often accompanied by a sense of doom or an urge to escape. There are three types; (1) Unexpected (uncued) panic attacks are not associated with a situational trigger (either internal or external) and, instead, "occurs out of the blue." Requires the experiences of at lest two unexpected attacks; however a person may also experience other types, particularly later in the course of the disorder. (2) Situationally bound (cued) attacks occur almost invariably on exposure to or anticipation of a situational cue or trigger (e.g., the person has an immediate attack whenever she thinks about giving a speech at work) and are most characteristic of social and specific phobias. (3) Situationally predisposed attacks are more likely to occur on exposure to a situational cue or trigger but are not invariably associated with the cue and do not necessarily occur immediately after exposure to it. These are common but can occur in social phobia or specific phobia, as well.
Panic Disorder (with and without Agoraphobia)
An anxiety disorder involving two or more unexpected discrete periods of intense apprehension, fear, or terror that develop abruptly and usually peak within 10 minutes. Symptoms may mimic a heart attack or hyperthyroidism. Treatment usually includes in vivo exposure and, in some cases, a TCA or SSRI.
Parallel Process (A.K.A. reflection process)
Phenomenon in supervisory interactions in which a worker unconsciously reenacts certain client's behavior in an effort to understand it better and get help from the supervisor in dealing with it.
Paraphilia
A sexual disorder in which intense, recurrent sexual urges, fantasies, or behaviors involve either nonhuman objects; the suffering or humiliation of oneself or ones partner; or children or other nonconsenting partners. Includes, among others, transvestic fetishism, pedophilia, and voyeurism. Often treated with covert sensitization and some type of relapse prevention.
Parasympathetic Division
The division of the autonomic nervous system involved in the conservation of energy and relaxation. Activation of this divisions is associated with the slowing of heart rate, lowered blood pressure, contraction of pupils, reduction of sweat gland output, and increased activity of the digestive system.
Parentification
Process within a family system in which a spouse, or more typically, a child, is expected to take on a significant parenting role in the family. Represents a subjective distortion of family relationships in which a family member acts as though his/her spouse or child were actually his/her parent. Somewhat the opposite of scapegoating, a child assumes excessive responsibly in a pseudo-adult role by emotionally or physically caring for a weak parent or vulnerable marriage. This role serves to defuse marital stress and also to reinforce the power of the child in the family. There is often an associated effect of sibling rivalry, and the parentified child may be more vulnerable to incidents of incest or physical abuse.
Parenting Style (Baumrind)
There are four styles to distinguish from reflecting various combinations of responsibility and demandingness: authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and rejecting-neglecting. High parental responsivity mixed with moderate control (and "authoritative style") is associated with the best outcomes including greater self-confidence and self-reliance, achievement-orientation, and social responsibility.
Parkinson's Disease
Movement disorder involving bradykinesia (slowness of movement), rigidity, and resting tremor. About 20-60 percent of patients eventually develop dementia.
Partialization
The method of temporarily considering a client's interconnected problems as separate issues so that planning and doing the work toward resolving them can be more manageable, then the social worker and client will ordinarily first deal with those that need immediate attention.
Patterns of Attachment (Ainsworth)
Research using Ainsworth's "strange situation" revealed four patterns: secure, insecure/ambivalent, insecure/avoidant, and disorganized/disoriented. Each is associated with different caregiver behaviors and different personality and behavioral outcomes.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
The nervous system elements lying outside of the spinal cord and brain. It consists of the spinal and cranial nerves and is divided into the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.
Person-in-Environment (PIE) System
Diagnostic taxonomy used to describe, classify, and code problems in adult social functioning. Problems are grouped into four factors: factor I, problems in social role functioning; factor II, problems in the environment; factor III mental health problems; and factor IV, physical health problems.
Phases of Schizophrenia
(1) Prodromal: Comes before the active phase. Included deterioration in functioning and may include only negative symptoms or mild (attenuated) forms an active phase symptoms (e.g. magical thinking instead of full-blown delusions, mildly disorganized speech eccentric behavior). (2) Active: Prominent symptoms of the active phase (e.g. hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech and behavior). (3) Residual: Similar to the prodromal phase, but comes after the active phase.
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
Potential cause of mental retardation due to an inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine. Can be prevented by providing a diet low in phenylalanine.
Physical Abuse (Children)
This may be by a parent or other caregiver as a result for and act of commission or from an act of omission (e.g., failure to protect the child). Occurs across in all socioeconomic classes by a disproportionate number of know cases (i.e., reported cased, or those that come to the attention of authorities) involved low-income families. Perpetrators are more often female than male; and young, low-income, single mothers with young children are at greatest risk of abusing their children.
Physical Neglect (Children)
A parent's or other caregiver's persistent lack of attention to the child's basic physical needs (e.g., food, shelter, clothing, supervises, health care). Types include abandonment/lack of supervision; nutritional; hygiene; medical; shelter; educational; and some cases of failure to thrive (signs of chronic undernutrition). Any acts of commissions or omission that put a child in danger constitute child endangerment, and this is the most common type of child endangerment.
PICA
An eating disorder of infancy or early childhood that involves persistent eating of nonnutritive substance.
Pleasure Principle
According to Freud, the function of the id that reduces tension by gratification of instinctual needs without regard for logic, reality or morality.
Positive and Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia
The positive symptoms include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior. The negative symptoms involve a restriction in the range of intensity of emotions and other functions. Examples include affective flattening (reduced body language, expressionless, unresponsive face, poor eye contact), alogia (poverty of thought and speech), and avolition (restricted initiation of goal-directed behavior).
Postpartum Depression
Sad feelings experienced by some women after having a baby, often as result of fatigue or changing hormone levels. These feelings usually remit within a few days of weeks. Other women display clinical symptoms of depression that last for months. When the symptoms had a onset within four weeks of delivery and include extreme and labile moods; feeling of guilt, inadequacy, and worthlessness, irritability; fatigue; sleep and appetite disturbances; anxiety and panic; disinterest in the baby; and/or fears of harming oneself or the baby; the DSM classified this as a disorder.
PostTraumatic Stress Disorder
An anxiety disorder that involves the development of characteristic symptoms after exposure to a traumatic event that entails actual or threatened death or serious injury to self or theirs. The immediate reaction to the event is characterized by intense fear, helplessness, or horror; this is followed by persistent re-experiencing of the trauma; persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma; and persistent symptoms of increased arousal. Treatment for acute symptoms usually involves exposure and opportunities for catharsis.
Practice Guidelines
Systematically developed statement to facilitate practitioner and patient decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. Developed on the basis on empirical (observed) evidence of efficacy and serve several purposes including standardizing and improving the quality of client care: helping clinician identify that most effective treatment approaches for specific disorders; and reducing the cost of health care effective treatment approaches for specific disorders; and reducing the cost of health care.
Precipitating Factor (Crisis)
The final stressful event in a series of events that moves a person from a state of acute vulnerability into crisis. The precipitating factor is often a minor even but it can assume catastrophic proportions in the context of other stressful events and the person's inability to use his usual problem-solving strategies.
Prematurity
Infants born before 37 week are considered as having a risk factor it includes low SES, teen mothers, malnutrition, and drug use. In the absence of significant abnormalities and with appropriate medial attention and a supportive environment, most of the infants born with risk factors catch up to their peers in terms of cognitive language, and social skills by 2 or 3 year of age
Presenting Problem
Consists of the perceived symptoms and overt issues or difficulties that, according to the client, constitute the problems of which she has sought help. May not be the actual problems or the program that needs attention - i.e., it may be a distortion of the actual problem or a matter that the client feels safer disclosing or the client and her family may misunderstand the problem or not understand it fully. Nevertheless, a social work should "start where the client is" during an assessment and focus initially on eliciting the present problem.
Prevention
An approach that the alleviation of mental disorders that is associated with both community mental health and public health. They are classified as primary secondary, or tertiary; Primary ones make an intervention available to all members of a target group or population in order to keep them form developing a disorder. Secondary ones identify at-risk individuals and offer them appropriate treatment. Tertiary ones are designed to reduce the duration and consequences of an illness that has already occurred.
Primary Gain and Secondary Gain
Two mechanisms used to explain the development of conversion disorder (and other symptoms): With a primary, the symptoms keeps an internal conflict of need out of conscious awareness; with a secondary, the symptoms helps the individual avoid anoxious activity or obtain otherwise unavailable support from the environment.
Primary Mental Disorders
All disorders in the DSM except those directly caused by a general medical condition and/or induced by a substance, Axis I.
Projective Personality Tests
Relatively unstructured personality test (e.g., Rorschach, TAT) in which the stimuli are ambiguous and the responses required are open-ended. Their development and use are based on the "projective hypothesis", which proposes that a person's interpretation of ambiguous stimuli provides information about her personality traits, need, feelings, conflicts, etc.
Protective Factors
Factors coexisting with risks are personal, social, and institutional factors that promote personal competence and successful development and, thereby, decrease the likelihood of a problem occurring. Examples include adequate prenatal care, active coping mechanisms, and low family stress.
Psychic Determinism
The doctrine that all actions, thoughts, verbalizations, etc., are meaningful and obey the law of cause and effect (e.g., slips of the tongue reflect unconscious material).
Psychoactive (Psychotropic)
Drug Agents that interact with the central nervous system in a way that produces changes in mood, consciousness, perception, and/or behavior. The drugs exert their effects in various ways but all have one or two basic effects: They either increase or decrease the effectiveness of transmission at nerve synapses. The drugs also have side-effects that may interfere with a person's physical, psychological, and /or social functioning or well-being.
Psychoeducation
A form of information giving that involves teaching a client and his family about the nature of the client's disorder of condition, including its etiology, progressions, consequences, prognosis, treatment, and alternatives.
Psychological Reactance
The tendency to resist being influenced or manipulated by others, usually by doing the opposite of what is desired or expected.
Psychosexual Development
Freud's theory of personality development, which proposes that development involves five invariant stages (oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital), in which the libido shifts from one area of the body to another.
Psychosocial Assessment (Psychosocial Diagnosis)
A social worker's summary judgment concerning the problem to be solved: describes the problem configuration, existing assets and resources, the prognosis, and a plan designed to resolve that problem. Where relevant, also includes results from psychological test, information concerning the client's legal status, and any diagnostic labels that apply to the client.
Psychosocial Development
Erikson's theory of personality development, which proposes that an individual face different social crisis at different points (stages) throughout the life span. These stages are trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame and doubt, initiative vs. guilt, industry vs. inferiority, identity vs. role confusion, intimacy vs. isolation, generativity vs. stagnation, and integrity vs. despair.
Benzodiazepines
A type of anxiolytic (anti-anxiety drug). More effective for alleviating anticipatory anxiety than panic symptoms. Side-effects include drowsiness, ataxia, slurred speech, and other signs of CNS depression. Abrupt cessation can cause rebound hyper excitability.
Beta-Blockers (Propranolol)
They diminish the cardiovascular excitatory response to the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine. They are used to treat cardiovascular disorder, glaucoma, and migraine headache and are also useful for reducing the physical symptoms of anxiety. Common side-effects include bradycardia, nausea, diarrhea, dizziness, decreased sexual ability, and trouble sleeping.
Race
The primary subdivisions of human beings, based on distinguishing characteristics that are genetically transmitted. However, people often seek to distinguish racial groups on the basis of characteristics that are culturally learned rather than genetically transmitted.
Rapport
Consists of a sense of trust between a social worker and client, a comfortable atmosphere, and a mutual understanding of the purpose of and interview. Many experts maintain that rapport must begin to develop in the first face-to-face interview because a client's sense of trust and comfort are vital for facilitating a productive assessment.
Reactive Attachment Disorder
Early childhood disorder involving developmentally inappropriate social relatedness cause by pathogenic care. Includes inhibited and disinhibited types
Retrograde Amnesia
A loss of memory for events that occurred or information that was acquired prior to the trauma or other event that caused the amnesia.
RETT'S Disorder
A pervasive developmental disorder involving a characteristic pattern of symptoms following a period of normal development. Symptoms include deceleration of head growth, loss of purposeful hand movement, impaired coordination, and impaired language development.
Schema
A knowledge structure of framework about a particular topic or process that influences how information and events are interpreted and responded to.
Schema, Marital
The overt pathology in a marital relationship. Characterized by a failure to achieve role reciprocity or complementarity of purpose, leading to chronic family difficulties.
Schizoaffective Disorder
A psychotic disorder involving an uninterrupted period of disturbance in which there are concurrent symptoms of a mood disorder and the active-phase symptoms of schizophrenia with at least a tow-week period in which hallucinations and delusions are present without predominant mood symptoms.
Schizoid Personality Disorder
A personality disorder involving a pervasive pattern of indifference to interpersonal relationships and a restricted rang of emotional expression in social setting.
Schizophrenia
A psychotic disorder involving a disturbance of six months or more that includes at least one month or more of active-phase symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms, Five subtypes are identified: paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, undifferentiated, and residual. Onset is most often in the late teens to mid-30's; rates are about equal for males and females. Treatment ordinarily includes and antipsychotic drug, family therapy, and social-skills training. Possible causes include structural brain abnormalities and abnormalities in neurotransmitters (elevated dopamine, norepinephrine, and/or serotonin).
Schizophreniform Disorder
A psychotic disorder involving active-phase psychotic symptoms and a duration of at least one month but less than six months.
Schizotypal Personality Disorder
A personality disorder that is diagnosed in the presence of pervasive deficits in interpersonal relationships; acute discomfort with, and restricted capacity for, close relationships; and eccentricities in cognition, perception, and behavior.
Sedative-Hypnotics (Benzodiazepines)
These drugs include the barbiturates, anxiolytics, and alcohol. These drugs are generalized CNS depressants, and their effects, for the most par, are dose dependent: At low doses, these drugs reduce arousal and motor activity; at moderate doses, they induce sedation and sleep; and at high does, they can produce anesthesia, coma, and death. They are a type of anxiolytic. Their side-effects include drowsiness, ataxia, slurred speech, and other sings of CNS depression; abrupt cessation can cause rebound hyperexcitability. They are the most commonly prescribed anxiolytic and are used to alleviate anxiety and treat sleep disturbances, seizures, cerebral palsy, and alcohol withdrawal. Common side effects include drowsiness, dizziness, lethargy, slurred speech, and impaired psychomotor ability. They can also produce paradoxical agitation, impaired sexual functioning, confusion, and sleep disturbances
Seeking Concreteness
Interview technique used to determine the specific meaning of vague terms a client has used and to elicit specific information that might not otherwise be revealed. Having a client define a term she has used helps the social worker understand the client's problem and prevents the social worker form having to make assumptions.
Self-Report Inventories and Checklists
Used to assess and diagnose specific client problems, determine the need for further assessment in specific areas, and facilitate treatment planning, monitoring, and outcome assessment. A useful alternative to longer psychological test when the presence of severity of one problem, condition, or symptom is of particular concern. Easy to administer and allow the social worker to learn the client's own perception of her problem by are susceptible to response set on the part of the client, yield limited information, and must be supplemented with data form other sources.
Separation Anxiety
A normal fear response exhibited by a young child when he is separated form a mother or though primary caregiver. Begins at about 6 to 8 months, increases in intensity at about 14 to 18 months, and thereafter declines.
Separation Anxiety Disorder
An anxiety disorder of childhood that involves developmentally inappropriate, excessive anxiety related to reparation from home or attachment figures. Often manifested as school refusal
Sexual Abuse (Children)
The initiation of an interaction with a child by an adult or older child for the purpose of sexually gratifying or stimulating the adult or older child or another person (e.g., genital fondling, molestation, rape, incest, sexual exploitation, exhibitionism, pedophilia). The majority of the victims are assaulted by someone they know and trust (e.g., a parent, parent surrogate, other relative, and friend). Only a small minority of sexual abusers use physical violence; most used bribes, threats, and other forms of coercion and/or the existing relationship with the child to gain the child's cooperation.
Situational Crises
A crisis in which the origin is a sudden, random, shocking, and often catastrophic event that cannot be anticipated or controlled. Factors that determine whether a person will experience such an event as a crisis include her perception of interpretation of the event and available coping mechanisms and social supports.
Skew, Marital A pathological relationship in which one partner dominates the other one. Generally, the weaker partner permits and even supports this relational Dynamic, resulting in apparent harmony and pseudomutuality
Soap Charting
Charting system used in many medical and metal health professions that entails classifying client information according to the acronym, SOAP (Subjective information, Objective Information, Assessment, and Plan).
Social Assessment Reports
Professional reports that describe the social aspects of a client's functioning and her situation (i.e., her social history) with a particular focus on the match or lack of match between a client's needs and the resources available to meet her needs. Used by social workers to communicate to other processionals (e.g., interdisciplinary teams, doctors, psychologists, school personnel, judges) relevant social information about a client (or family) and are particularly useful when decisions are being make about the type of services or program that would be most appropriate for a client and/or when attempting to facilitate a client's adjustment to a new environment (e.g., foster home, nursing home).
Social Phobia
An anxiety disorder involving a marked, persistent fear of social of performance situations that may cause embarrassment of humiliation as the result of scrutiny or evaluation by others. Treatment often involves exposure to feared stimuli and cognitive behavioral techniques.
Somatic Nervous System (SNS)
Consist of sensory nerves that carry information form the body's sense receptors to the central nervous system (CNS) and motor nerves that carry information form the CNS to the skeletal muscles. The SNS governs activities that are ordinarily considered voluntary.
Somatoform Disorders
Disorders characterized by physical symptoms that suggest a medical disorder but that are not fully explained by medical condition and that are not intentionally produced. This differentiates these disorders form malingering and factitious disorders in which the person intentionally produces or fakes the symptoms. Examples include somatization disorder and conversion disorder.
Specific Phobia
An anxiety disorder characterized by marked, persistent fear of specific object or situation other than those associated with agoraphobia or social phobia. Treatment involves imaginal or in vivo exposure.
SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors)
Antidepressant drugs that include Prozac and Zoloft. Exert their effects by blocking the reuptake of serotonin side-effects include gastrointestinal disturbances, sexual dysfunctions, insomnia, anxiety, headache, and anorexia. In comparison to the TCAs, the SSRIs are less cardiotoxic, sager in overdose, and less likely to produce cognitive impairments.
Starting Where the Client Is
Entails focusing on a client's priorities, including her primary concerns (what she considers important or want to talk about) and her current emotional state.
Stepparents
Girls, especially those in the middle school year, seem to have more trouble than boys in accepting a stepfather, while the addition of a stepfather may have benefits for preadolescent boys. Over time, these boys often develop close relationships with their stepfathers and become fairly in distinguishable from boys in non-divorced families in terms of behavioral problems. The best general conclusion hat can be drown about stepfathers is that they are less authoritative and more disengaged that biological fathers.
Stereotypes
Schemas about entire groups that contain oversimplified, rigid, and generalized impressions of members of those groups; these impressions are held despite the existence of individuals differenced among members of the group. A serious consequence of this is a devaluation of the individual - i.e., persons belonging to another group (e.g., another race) are no longer viewed as unique individuals; instead, all the members of the group are presumed have the same, often negative or inferior, characteristics.
Stimulus Anxiety
A normal fear response to strangers exhibited by young children. Begins at about 8 to 10 months of age and declines during the second year.
Stuttering
A communication disorder involving a disturbance in normal fluency and time pattering of speech. Onset is normally between the ages 2 and 7 years; symptoms typically remit spontaneously by age 16.
Subjective
Relating to personal opinions and thought processes rather than factual information or universal experience. Based on personal opinions, feelings, and attitudes; not objective
Substance Abuse
A disorder characterized by a maladaptive patter of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress and evidenced by the presence of at least one symptom during a 12-month period. The symptoms have never met the criteria for substance dependence for the class of substance in question.
Substance Dependence
A substance use disorder involving the continued use of a substance despite significant substance-related problems as evidenced by the presence of at least three characteristic symptoms during a 12-month period. May or may not involves tolerance and withdrawal (physiological dependence).
Subtle Racism
Term used to describe a less blatant (more covert) form of racism, which some authors contend has replaced "old-fashioned" (overt) prejudice and discrimination. Typically refers to the beliefs, attitudes, and actions of individuals rather than institutions.
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
The unexpected death of an infant for which no physical cause can be found. Although the cause is unknown, it occurs more often in low-birth-weight infants, premature infants, infants with low Apgar Scores, Infants who sleep on the stomachs, infants with a sibling who previously died of this, and male infants. Maternal risk factors include young age, low SES, smoking, drug abuse during pregnancy, closely spaced pregnancies, and inadequate parental care.
Tardive Dyskinesia
Potentially irreversible extrapyramidal side-effect associated with long-term use of traditional antipsychotic drugs. Symptoms include rhythmical, stereotyped movements of the muscles of the face, limbs, and trunk (similar to Huntington's chorea). In some cases, symptoms are alleviated by a GABA agonist or by gradual withdrawal of the drug.
Tourette's Disorder
A tic disorder characterized by at least one vocal tic and multiple motor tics.
Traditional Antipsychotics (e.g., phenothiazines)
They are used for the management of schizophrenia and other psychoses. They are most effective for positive symptoms (delusions, hallucination, agitation, though disorders). Side effects include anticholinergic, extrapyramidal effects, and neuroleptic malignant syndromes. These drugs exert their beneficial effect primarily by blocking dopamine receptors, and their effectiveness provides support for the dopamine hypotheses which attributes schizophrenia to overactive at dopamine receptors.
Transference
A client's experience of feelings, attitudes, fantasies, etc., toward the therapist, which represent a projection of displacement and repetition of reactions to ta significant other person in the client's past. Freud considered transference to e a form of resistance and the cornerstone of psychoanalysis.
Transference Neurosis
The "artificial neurosis" that occurs during the course of psychoanalysis and that involves the development of transference
Traumatic Brain Injury (Post-Traumatic Amnesia, Retrograde Amnesia)
Refers to an injury to the brain that is caused by an external force and involves temporary or permanent impairments in cognitive, emotional, behavioral and/or physical functioning. It can be due to a closed- or open-head injury. A closed-head injury usually caused an alteration or loss of consciousness followed by anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Anterograde amnesia is referred to as post-traumatic amnesia, and its duration is a good predictor of recovery. Retrograde amnesia affects recent memories more that remote memories and, when long-term memories begin to return the more remote memories return first.
Tricyclic (Imipramine, Clomipramine, antidepressants [TCAs])
They are believed to work by blocking the reuptake of norepinephrine, dopamine, and/or serotonin. They are most effective for alleviating somatic, vegetative symptoms. Side effects include anticholinergic effects, confusion, drowsiness, weight gain, and cardiovascular symptoms. Imipramine has also been found useful for treating enuresis, while clomipramine is an effective treatment for panic disorder, agoraphobia, bulimia, and OCD.
Rorschach Test
It obtains descriptive information about the client as he or she is at the time of testing; i.e., general and specific information about internal organization and processes. Data from the test could be used to identify potential treatment targets and considerations. By itself, however, the test does not provide sufficient information to formulate a treatment plan. Projective personality tests are thought to reveal an examinee's thinking and association patterns because the ambiguous stimuli they present offer relatively few cues about "normal" or conventional responses.
Vascular Dementia
A form of dementia caused by arteriosclerosis or other cerebrovascular disease. The course is stepwise and fluctuating and the pattern of symptoms is patchy.
Vegetative Symptoms
Consist of sleep disturbances, changes in appetite or weight, loss of energy frequent fatigue, and changes in sexual function. Useful for diagnostic screening purposes because they may indicate a serious mental disorder. If a client reports these symptoms, the social work should find out whether they reflect a change from the client's pervious functioning.
Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (Vineland-II)
Appropriate for individuals from birth to age 90 and designed to evaluate personal and social skills of individuals with mental retardation, autism disorder, ADHD, brain injury, or dementia and/or assisting in the development of educational and treatment plans.
Viral Loads and CD4 Counts (HIV/AIDS)
HIV viral load is the number of copies of the human immunodeficiency virus in a person' blood and other parts of her body. Keeping the viral load low can reduce complication of HIV disease and extend and person's life. The CD4 count is also useful for identifying the state of a person's HIV disease. Keeping the CD4 count high can reduce complication of HIV disease and extend a person' life. (CD4 count high can reduce complications of HIV disease and extended a person's life. (CD4 cells, also called T-helper cells, are a type of white blood cell that fights infection.)
Vulnerable State (Crisis)
A person's subjective response to stressful events in his life. Is marked by an increase in anxiety, which the person attempts to relive by using his customer coping strategies. If these are unsuccessful, the person's tension continues to rise and eventually he is unable to function effectively.
Ward of the Court
Someone under the protection of the courts, usually referring to foster child in the custody of a public child welfare agency. In other states, however, refers to individuals who are or were incarcerated.
Warm-up Period
A brief period of "small talk" that may be used at the beginning of an interview to help a client feel more comfortable before she begins self-disclosing. Most appropriate to use when a client appears resistance or defensive and is also useful with many adolescent clients.