Terms in this set (139)
After cutting meat on a cutting board, the best way to clean it is to...
wash it in hot, soapy water
The proper temperature for storing foods in the freezer is _________ degrees Fahrenheit or 0 degrees Celcius.
Where should meat, fish, and poultry be defrosted for optimum safety?
in the refrigerator
List some examples of troublemakers when it comes to Salmonella?
raw eggs, poultry, reptiles, unwashed fruits and vegetables
List some food-borne sources of Staphylococcus...
improperly refrigerated salads contaminated sandwiches bakery products like cream pies and éclairs
Describe how E. Coli is contracted, how long it lasts and its symptoms.
consuming raw or undercooked hamburgers, raw milk, or unpasteurized juices; causes severe diarrhea that can last 5-7 days
Which pathogen is most likely contracted from soft cheeses or deli meats and could possibly cause a miscarriage in pregnancy?
List some BAD food handling practices....
storing cooked and fresh meats together in the same container
List the 4 vital signs:
temperature blood pressure heart rate respiration rate
Why do doctors measure vital signs?
to help diagnose illnesses and diseases
What is the range of normal body temperature for a healthy adult?
What is the difference between hypothermia and hyperthermia?
hypothermia - a body temperature below 95F & hyperthermia - a body temperature above 99.5F
Body temperature changes throughout the day and is usually highest in the
What are some factors other than illness that can increase body temperature?
exercise, strong emotion, eating, heavy clothing, and high humidity
What causes fever?
the body fighting an infection
Most bacteria and viruses that cause infections cannot survive in an environment warmer than _
The body sweats to keep cool, this is an example of maintaining _______
The _ _____ system is a system of glands that secrete different hormones into the bloodstream.
The ______ system helps regulate bleeding and heart rate.
Normal heart rate for a teen or adult is:
What unit is blood pressure measured in?
mmHg (millimeters of Mercury)
What is normal blood pressure in a healthy adult?
120/80 or less
The genetic material in all known living organisms and some viruses is known as ___
What are the 4 nitrogenous bases (that make up base pairs) of DNA?
guanine, cytosine, adenine, thymine
Which base is only found in RNA, NOT DNA?
Uracil, it replaces thymine
Describe the structure of DNA
How many chromosomes do humans have? How many pairs of chromosomes?
46 chromosomes, 23 pairs
Humans and other predators have ___ facing eyes, that are adept at calculating distance.
Describe depth perception
achieved when both eyes view an object and the brain judges the comparative distance by noting the degree of difference between two fields of vision
What is the blind spot? Is it sensitive to light?
It is the point where the optic nerve enters the retina and is not covered in rods and cones. The blind spot is NOT sensitive to light.
Most individuals do not make equal use of both eyes. They depend more heavily on one eye known as their __
What is an epidemic?
An infectious disease that spreads rapidly and sickens a large number of people
Describe, briefly, the 1918 avian flu outbreak.
It killed an estimated 30-50 million people worldwide and may have been the most devastating short duration epidemic in history
What is the difference between a viral and bacterial disease? Give 2 examples of viral diseases.
viruses need a living host to grow and replicate they cannot be treated with antibiotics, ex - smallpox, HIV, SARS, Chicken pox
List 3 methods for preventing viral diseases.
vaccines, hand washing, physical barriers (masks)
Describe the Chickenpox illness.
Caused by the Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) and causes an itchy red rash of spots that looks like blisters and can be accompanied by flu-like symptoms such as a fever and body aches
Why is the brainstem sometimes called the "reptilian brain"?
Because it is the oldest and most basic region of the brain, also, physically resembles the reptiles brain
The brainstem is best known for controlling...
Essential survival functions such as breathing and heart beat
Which lobe is responsible for complex thinking, such as memory, speech, emotion, planning and reasoning?
Which lobe of the brain is most closely associated with short term memory?
During the brain dissection, what was the name of the white film-like layer that we removed by cutting away at the beginning of the lab?
Why do you see stars when you hit the back of your head?
Because the optic nerves are located just underneath your occipital lobe
Which one of the 5 senses is the temporal lobe associated with?
Which part of the brain is most closely involved with movement?
What part of the brain is associated with all senses EXCEPT smell?
The amygdala is associated with ___
What is another word for drive gear? Driven gear?
What happens to speed when the drive gear gets smaller? the driven gear gets larger?
Decreases , decreases
What happens to the torque when speed decreases?
What is the gear ratio of a simple gear train if the two gears are the same size?
When calculating gear ratios, what number is the numerator? denominator?
driven or output drive or input
In a belt drive system, what happens to the pulleys when the belt is crossed instead of open?
crossed = opposite directions, uncrossed = same direction
What is the benefit of a belt drive system?
quieter and less expensive
What is the benefit of a chain drive system?
What is the gear ratio if the driven is 12 tooth and the drive is 8 tooth?
What happens to the amount the slider moves if you increase the size of the input in a crank and slider?
the distance increases
Who is associated with taking simple tasks and performing it in a complicated way?
What do mechanisms change?
speed, torque, direction, type of movement
How are force and torque related?
they have an inverse relationship (one increases the other decreases)
back and forth in an arc
back and forth in a straight line
movement in a straight line
movement in a circle
Belt & Pulley
The transmission of power between shafts by means of a belt connecting pulleys on the shafts.
One of a pair of gears used to connect two shafts whose axes intersect.
Cam & Follower
A pear-shaped disk with an off-center pivot point, used to change rotating motion into reciprocating motion.
Crank & Slider
A pivot pin near the outside edge of a wheel or disk that changes reciprocating motion into rotary motion.
Crown & Pinion
A small cogwheel (pinion gear) that engages or is engaged by a larger cogwheel (crown gear).
The gear which transmits power and motion to the rest of the system. The input gear.
The member of a pair of gears to which motion and power are transmitted by the other. The output gear.
The ability to do work.
A push or pull on an object.
A toothed wheel that works with others to alter the relation between the speed of an engine and the speed of the driven parts.
The ratio of the speed of the driving member of a gear train to that of the driven member.
A gear between the driver and the driven gear used to change rotational direction.
Something put into a system, such as resources, in order to achieve a result.
Opposite in position, direction, order or effect.
A threaded shaft used to convert rotary movement to linear movement.
Movement in a straight line.
The part of a machine which contains two or more pieces arranged so that the motion of one compels the motion of the others.
A swing back and forth at a regular rate.
The results of the operation of any system.
The distance between adjacent threads in a screw.
Rack & Pinion
A rotating gear that meshes with a bar that has gear teeth along its length. Changes rotating motion into linear motion.
The quantitative relation between two amounts showing the number of times one value contains or is contained within the other.
A back and forth movement.
Simple Gear Train
A combination of two or more gears used to transmit motion between two rotating shafts or between a shaft and a slide.
A twisting force.
A joint that allows connected shafts to spin freely while permitting a change in direction.
The application of force that moves an object a certain distance.
Worm & Wheel
A mechanical arrangement consisting of a toothed wheel driven by a short revolving cylinder bearing a screw thread.
A signal having the characteristic of being continuous and changing smoothly over a given range, rather than switching suddenly between certain levels.
A technique that is used to make a process automatic.
Anything your robot does; turning on a
motor, following a line, navigating a maze.
Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM)
Using computers to operate and control machines and processes to manufacture a product.
Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM)
A company-wide management philosophy for planning, integration, and implementation of automation.
A system that uses feedback from the output to control the input.
Using descriptive text to explain portions of code; do not change the way a robot behaves, but are important for the programmer to remember what the code does.
A system of discrete states: high or low, on or off, 1 or 0.
The ability to bring a desired result with the least waste of time, energy, or material.
A conductor wrapped around an iron core. The two ends of the conductor are attached to a power source. When current passes through the conductor, the iron core becomes magnetized.
Try out a new procedure, idea, or activity.
Information about the output of a system that can be used to make adjustments.
Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS)
The efficient production of small amounts of products.
A diagram that shows step-by-step progression through a procedure or system especially using connecting lines and a set of conventional symbols.
Use of liquids or gases under pressure to move objects or perform other tasks.
Device that combines hydrogen, or other fuels, and oxygen and produces electricity in the process.
Fluid power system that uses water, oil, or another liquid.
A symbol or graphic representation on a screen of a program.
An improvement of an existing technological product, system, or method of doing something.
Information fed into a system.
The place at which independent and often unrelated systems meet and act on or communicate with each other.
A new product, system, or process that has never existed before, created by study and experimentation.
A touch sensor used to limit the motion of a moving device; may be used to provide a precise beginning and end point to mechanical motion
To function imperfectly or badly.
The contact of a relay that is closed when the coil is de-energized.
The contact of a relay that is open when the coil is de-energized.
A negative temperature coefficient, also known as a thermistor, is a sensitive resistor whose primary function is to exhibit a change in electric resistance with a change in temperature.
A control system that has no means for comparing the output with input for control purposes. An open-loop system often requires human intervention.
The information produced by a computer.
A photo-sensitive resistor whose resistance decreases as the light striking the unit increases.
Fluid power system based on the use of air or another gas.
A turn where one wheel rotates forward and the other rotates backward, causing the robot to sit and spin in place.
A sensor used to measure the angular position of the axle or shaft passing through its center.
Set of instructions that control the operation of a computer.
Shorthand notation for programming
An electromagnetically operated switching device.
A device that responds to a physical stimulus (as heat, light, sound, pressure, magnetism, or a particular motion) and transmits a resulting impulse (as for measurement or operating a control).
Programs and other operating information used by a computer.
A device that converts solar radiation into electricity.
A turn where one wheel rotates and the other stays in place, causing the robot's body to "swing" around the stationary wheel
A device for making, breaking, or changing the connections in an electrical circuit.
A group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent elements or parts that function together as a whole to accomplish a goal.
A level or point at which something would start or cease to happen or come into effect.
A sensor that detects physical contact and reports back to the controller whether its contact area is being pushed in or not.
Locating and finding the cause of problems related to technological products or systems.
A control flow statement that allows code to be executed repeatedly.