UNIT 6 APHG QUIZZES
Terms in this set (103)
one effect of ecotourism
has brought significant numbers of foreign visitors and currency to Costa Rica, Ecuador, Nepal, and Belize
the popularity of national parks in Costa Rica is an example of
the trend towards ecotourism
intentions of ecotourism
to offset destruction of natural habitats, to educate the populace about environmental conservation, to prevent the displacement of indigenous cultures & peoples, and to attract younger, more eco-conscious tourism clientele
according to the Human Development Index (HDI), the lowest ranking countries in the world are found in...
population statistics of a newly industrialized country
high population growth and rapid rural to urban migration
Human Development Index (HDI)
development indicator that uses factors such as life expectancy, education rates, and income to evaluate a country
spacial patterns of literacy
powerful tool contributing to colonial dominance, it is often used as means to limit educational opportunities to women by tyrannical governments, the historical development of alphabets explains dominant languages across the globe, and literacy rates are increasing across the globe
least developed region
comparisons of economic indicators in MDCs and LDCs
MDC's usually have fewer workers in the primary sector, individual workers in MDC's are more productive, MDCs have better access to raw materials, nonessential goods are more important in shaping the economies of MDCs
what variable has a negative relationship with the level of economic development of a country
primary difference between gross domestic product and gross national product
gross national product measures the hoe countries' sale in foreign countries, where GDP is in one's own country
the literacy rate of any country correlates most with
per capita income
what is true about value added in more developed countries?
it is much higher than in less developed countries
Gini coefficient measures the income disparity between
the wealthiest and poorest population groups within a country
the best explanation for economic inequality according to the capitalist work economy model is that:
LDC's have become dependent on the economies of MDC's
worldwide patterns of development
- the gap in per capita income between rich & poor countries increased over time
- per capita income in the US is higher than in China
- population growth is higher in peripheral countries than in core nations
- several Asian countries (Asian Tigers) made enormous strides in per capita income and levels of development in the past 30 years
the idea that some people have more access to and are better able to use technology
new international division of labor
outsourcing or restructuring of labor from MDCs to LDCs to take advantage of cheaper labor costs
jobs in the primary sector of the economy
agriculture, raising animals, fishing, forestry
Secondary industries such as fish canneries and lumber mills where manufacturing is dependent on a single natural resource tend to be located
centrally within consumer market regions
Developing countries generally demonstrate dominance in which economic sector?
The sector of an economy that includes service jobs concerned with research and development, as well as processing and disseminating information is the
In general, countries in the developed regions of the world tend to concentrate in _________________ economic activities as compared to developing countries where economic specialization tends to concentrate in ______________ activities
Primary economic activities involve
the direct extraction or harvest of natural resources
The sector of an economy that transforms raw materials into usable products is characterized by
secondary economic activities
The tertiary sector usually employs the largest percentage of jobs in the economy in
Why is the traditional classification of agriculture as a primary economic activity a problem when considering the geography of agriculture?
Modern farmers are engaged in production, research, marketing, and some manufacturing of their products.
The pessimistic viewpoint of economic development suggests what main factor causes a lack of development in certain locations?
lack of investment
Which is the first stage in Rostow's model of economic development?
The traditional society
In Rostow's stage of development model, economic maturity is characterized by
high mass consumption
A major problem with Rostow's Development Model has been the
need for a large bureaucracy
Southeast Asian cities have promoted economic growth through what primary means?
Western investment and trade
Rostow's modernization model is concerned with what concept?
Rostow's stages of development model predicts that each country's economy will progress from
low per capita incomes to high per capita incomes and high consumption
The main purpose of Fair Trade practices is
to protect workers
The pessimistic viewpoint about a lack of economic development in certain locations on the globe can be attributed to their lack of
gender equity is related to...
education, cultural traditions, Gross National Product
What has contributed most to the deindustrialization of regions like the English Midlands and the North American Manufacturing Belt?
competition from foreign imports
What arguments help explain why seventy-five percent of those employed in Export Processing Zones, such as maquiladoras, are women?
women are paid less than men and many employers consider women to be more dexterous than men
In what region of the world is the HDI significantly lower because females do not have access to educational opportunities?
Even though it is a relatively clean sources of energy, what is a disadvantage of hydroelectric power?
it can alter the ecosystems above and below the dam site
When compared to fossil fuels, alternative energy sources generally
are more expensive
what are examples of renewable energy sources
solar energy, geothermal energy, hydropower, and biomass
what is not an example of a renewable energy source?
factors that have contributed to industrialization and tertiary development in India...
hydroelectric potential of the subcontinent, large coal and iron deposits within the country's borders, a large labor force, and increased global access to and cost reductions of information technology
a factor that has NOT contributed to industrialization and tertiary development in India
major oil reserves within the country's borders
What resource is used to produce the largest amount of electricity in the United States?
coal mined transported within the US by railroads
in what countries did the use of oil and natural gas as common forms of energy during the 20th century directly boosted the economies
Saudi Arabia, Iran, Mexico, Nigeria
in what country did the use of oil and natural gas as common forms of energy during the 20th century NOT directly boost the economies
What country has experienced an economic boom as a result of the reclassification of tar sands from potential reserves to proven reserves of energy?
The diffusion of ideas from the Industrial Revolution was slow, especially the railway system, because
there was very little cooperation among the small, politically unstable countries of Europe
The Industrial Revolution began in the late 18th century in
What is commonly associated with the Industrial Revolution?
new forms of capital investment
Which of the following is NOT one of the primary industrial regions in the world economy?
Eastern Southern America
What are some of the primary industrial regions in the world economy?
Northeastern US, Central Europe, Russia/Ukraine, East Asia
Coca-cola, McDonald's and Pepsi are all example of what?
The northeastern coastal region was the first area in the United States to industrialize, and the economy of the region developed a solid economic base during the late 19th century. The northeastern coastal region had all of the following advantages EXCEPT:
abundant natural resources
The northeastern coastal region was the first area in the United States to industrialize, and the economy of the region developed a solid economic base during the late 19th century. The northeastern coastal region had all of the following advantages:
abundant skilled & semiskilled labor force, large #s of consumers in coastal cities, good natural harbors for break-of-bulk, and good access to European consumers
The earliest country in East Asia to industrialize was
Prior to the rise of steam power and the electrification of industry, manufacturing centers of the early Industrial Revolution were mainly located
on waterfalls of streams and rivers
The ________________ had the greatest impact on the industrial revolution.
The maquiladoras of northern Mexico are
manufacturing outsourcing plants
The most important cost in Weber's least cost theory is
Weber's least cost theory is based on what primary cost?
Which of the following best describes Alfred Weber's analysis of location decisions?
It seeks to minimize costs among multiple inputs of production.
According to location theory, primary industry first develops around the location of
Potato chip production is a good example of what?
If a manufacturing company uses a single, weight-losing raw material to manufacture its finished product, then most likely the company will
locate its manufacturing plant at the raw material site
What industry will most likely locate closest to its raw material?
A good example of a bulk-gaining industry is a(n)
Firms try to locate their production facilities to
minimize costs and maximize profits
You are a furniture maker and use pinewood to make tables and chairs. It costs about the same to ship the pinewood to your factory as it does to bring your furniture to the market as both have close to the same weight. Where do you put your factory in relation to the pine forest and the market to minimize transportation costs?
anywhere you want in between them
If several industries cluster in one city, they can provide support by sharing talents, services, and facilities. This statements describes Alfred Weber's factor of
The tendency for competing vendors to cluster in the middle of a customer area is called
Business owners can juggle expenses, as long as labor, land rents, transportation, and other costs don't all go up at one time. This concept is called
the substitution principle
Special Economic Zones (SEZs) allow foreign investment and capitalistic ventures in
Cities in India have a competitive advantage over cities in China as locations for international consumer services, such as call centers and bill processing. This advantage has its origins in which of the following?
the English language legacy of British colonialism in India
Often a manufacturing company will attempt to merge with another company that possesses forward and backward links in the supply or production process. What term best describes this type of strategy?
Economic complementarities between two places tend to
occur when each place specializes in commodities demanded by the other
The Internet is reshaping traditional economic arrangements by
expanding the importance of express package delivery systems
what is the best example of a footloose industry?
What mode of transportation is characterized by low terminal cost, high line cost, and high route flexibility?
sites where goods are transferred for continued shipping
The growth of potential of alternative agricultural practices such as the growing of amaranth grain and the raising of deer, elk, emus, and buffalo for meat is limited because
the growers have not established an integrated commodity chain
Contemporary manufacturing is characterized by
spatial disaggregation of the production process
the process of producing food in time to meet the demand for the food
What form of transportation would most likely be used to haul fruit from Central America to markets in the United States?
What is an advantage for Japanese corporations that locate their manufacturing plants in the United States?
lower transportation costs and greater access to markets
The location where transfer among different transportation modes is possible is called its
break of bulk point
What defines Chicago's position in relation to the infrastructure of the United States?
A good example of a labor intensive industry is
the decrease in employment in manufacturing as a share of total employment
The recent development of the tertiary sector of India's economy has been sparked by increasing employment in companies specializing in
The unique characteristics of a location like land, labor and capital are known as its
Many companies moved their operations from New England and the Midwest to locations in the South because
the south had less expensive site factors than northern regions
Multinatnional corporations take advantages of geographic differences in
wage rates, labor laws, the distribution of natural resources, and relaxed environmental standards
Which of the following regions experienced rapid industrial growth during the early 20th century, followed by a severe decline and difficult period of economic readjustment?
the Great Lakes
what statement describes deindustrialization
Effect of movement of secondary economic activities from developed to developing countries.
Low-profitability manufacturing, in goods such as clothing or shoes, tends to be located in LDCs that have all of the following...
low real estate prices, low labor costs, high numbers of available labor, and high amounts of foreign direct investment... NOT low labor costs
The deindustrialization process within MDCs where the national economy shifts away from manufacturing and toward services commonly leads to
large numbers of factory workers being laid-off and unemployed
Advanced economic countries, like the United States, may produce more pollution than less economically advanced countries because
they consume more resources
The idea that resources should be conserved so that people living today can meet their needs without limitng the ability of future generations to do the same is called
The optimistic viewpoint of economic development is based on what principle?
There is an abundance of both renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy and these resources can be shared