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APUSH Chapter 11 vocab
Terms in this set (17)
A wealthy Southern plantation owner. One of the many who owned hundreds of slaves. He believed however that slaves should receive 15-20 lashes of the whip per offense, but no more than 100 per day, to preserve their health.
Poor yeoman who worked a harsh piece of land in Mississippi. He lived in a crude log cabin and made a living by growing random crops and herding pigs. He was also given into fits of violence, once killing a black.
The slaves culture was dependent on the whites, while the economy was dependent on the slaves. The white culture caused the slaves owners to be superior to the slaves and other poor white farmers. The social class was set up to set the slaves at the bottom of the social class network.
Multiple genesis's or races. This was one of the questions that the religious institutions often asked of itself. They often wondered if God had created a lesser race of man in the blacks. This was tested by scientists of the time, who found that the Europeans were superior to the blacks through a test of cranial capacity.
born on December 8, 1765 in Westboro, Massachusetts. He designed and built the cotton gin. This machine allowed workers to clean up to 50 pounds of cotton in a day. While he did get this invention patented in 1794, it didn't stand up in court until 1807. Because of this, there were many imitations of his cotton gin design, but he couldn't do anything about it. While Whitney is well known for being the inventor of the cotton gin, he also created a musket that had interchangeable parts. Ironically, it was the musket that made him the most money. He died on January 8, 1825.
An American social theorist who published racial and slavery-based sociological theories in the antebellum era. He argued that "the negro is but a grown up child" who needs the economic and social protections of slavery. Fitzhugh decried capitalism as spawning "a war of the rich with the poor, and the poor with one another" - rendering free blacks "far outstripped or outwitted in the chase of free competition." Slavery, he contended, ensured that blacks would be economically secure and morally civilized.
Before the Civil War, African Americans that sought freedom fled north with help by a combination of the landscape, and people that didn't believe in slavery -- The Underground Railroad. Delaware was the last slave state, which made it a critical state concerning the slaves' freedom. Harriet Tubman was one of the many 'conductors' that led over 3,000 slaves through Delaware, to freedom.
After about 7 years of hiding in a tiny attic above her grandmother's house, she secretly got on a boat that was headed to Philadelphia, and later, freedom.
Maria Stewart was one of the people who pushed for both abolitionism and equal rights for blacks and women.
Sophia and Hugh Auld
Sophia Auld was known for teaching black slaves in Maryland were law forbade the teaching of slaves. Sophia's' husband caught her teaching slaves and made her stop doing it. He believed that teaching the slaves made them unmanageable.
J. C. Pennington
Born a slave, James William Charles Pennington (1809-71) was a blacksmith until he ran away to Pennsylvania in his early twenties. After spending several months studying under a Quaker teacher who took him in, Pennington moved to New York City, where he continued his education. Eventually, he studied theology and became a pastor. Pennington kept his status as a runaway slave secret until the late 1840s when he published his autobiography, The Fugitive Blacksmith. In 1850, he went to Europe until Scottish friends purchased his freedom the following year. From 1847 through 1855, Pennington served as pastor of Shiloh Presbyterian Church, one of the most respected African-American Presbyterian congregations in the United States.
Robert and Adele Allston
Adele Allston the oldest daughter Robert F. W. Allston, like many other young women of the southern planter class, kept a diary during her teens and early adulthood, and despite the burdens of motherhood, at least to some extent throughout the rest of her life. This diary is interesting for several reasons. First, as the eldest daughter of Robert F. W. Allston, rice planter and governor of South Carolina, Adele occupied a role at the apex of the antebellum plantocracy, and she witnessed the Civil War and Reconstruction along with her own coming of age.
Prohibition of External Slave Trade
Southern Justification of Slavery
The southerners came up with reasons why slavery was morally alright to make themselves feel better about it and to convince others that it was okay as well. Most southerners believed it was a "necessary evil" but later said it was "a positive good". The biblical reason was that slaves had been around since the biblical period of time and had help build many cities and serve masters, so people believed that the only way that civilization could run correctly was to have slaves. The 3/5ths clause and the mandate for returning fugitive slaves supposedly justified slavery legally. Another reason behind the righteousness of slavery thought by some southerners was that the blacks were created as a separate inferior race to serve whites.
Nat Turner's Slave Revolt
The most famous Slave revolt in North America, accrued in Southampton County, Virginia in 1831. It was a hot August night and Nat Turner and his followers crept into their master's house and killed the family. By the end of the night 55 whites where dead and twice as many blacks. Nat ran away only to be found 2 weeks later and was put to his death.
It is another form of ethnocracy, which is where a particular ethnic group hold a number of government positions were they use their numbers to persuade the other numbers of the government for the betterment of the ethnic group.
The freedom of slavery. These free slaves usually had very few skilled jobs available to them because mainly they couldn't work skilled jobs. They were usually found in the factories and lived in poverty (usually worse than the white trash "crackers"). However there was an elite group in the New Orleans region that was in the upper social class.
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