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ISB 202 Exam 4
Terms in this set (95)
Are most animals autotrophs or heterotrophs?
About how many million species of animals are known to exist?
Most animal species are invertebrates. T/F?
What type of symmetry is exhibited by things like starfish?
What animal is responsible for producing most of the limestone that exists on Earth?
We don't get tapeworms from chicken meat, so is eating under-cooked chicken safe?
Safe from tapeworms, bad for your health
What phylum of animals was first to have a complete digestive system?
What phylum of animals was the first to have organs?
What phylum of animals was the first to have no tissues?
What phylum of animals has no tissues or organs and also lacks symmetry?
What does coelom mean?
A fluid-filled body cavity
What phylum of animals was the first to have coelomate bodies?
There are 11 phyla of animals, ranging from the sponges to the "highest form", the _______.
Blood flukes are flatworms that cause shistosomiasis in humans, especially in developing countries. What other animal is involved in the reproductive cycle of blood flukes?
While there may be fewer species of them, how does the number of individual roundworms (nematodes) on Earth compare to the number of insects?
More species of insects, but less of them in total
One kind of roundworm plugs the lymph system of humans, leading to a disease called _____________.
What is the major way in which humans get tapeworms?
From undercooked beef, pork, and fish
What slimy little garden creature is a common example of the mollusk phylum of animals?
The annelid phylum is composed of creatures with segmented bodies. What type of annelid is seen on MSU sidewalks in the early spring months after rainy nights?
Which phylum makes up over half of the total known species of animals in the world? (Insects are part of this phylum!)
What "crustacean" is included in the name of a U.S. national restaurant chain?
Does a millipede really have a thousand legs?
No, they have six
Do sharks have bones?
No, their skeletal structure is entirely made of cartilage
Besides having a backbone, some sort of major nerve cord, a pharynx for breathing and eating, what else do vertebrates have (at least in the embryonic stage)?
What were the first vertebrates on land?
Reptiles likely arose from amphibians. Do reptiles have to rely on water for fertilization of eggs?
Are the shells of reptilian eggs hard or soft?
Soft and leathery
Of all organisms, birds are the only ones with feathers. True or False?
Mammals get their name from the Latin word, "mamma," which means what?
Latin for breast
What is the only mammal that can truly fly?
Do any mammals lay eggs? If so, give an example
Yes, platypus lay eggs
Placental animals are mammals, but marsupial animals aren't, right?
No, they are mammals
Where is the greatest concentration of marsupial species today?
In placental animals, does the mother's blood mix with that of the fetus?
Of the 2,000,000 known species of animals, most are ______.
What is "ecology?"
The study of interactions of living things with each other and with their environment
What is the difference between an ecologist and an environmentalist?
Environmentalists want to preserve nature, ecologists want to study it
When one species of organisms is eliminated from the biosphere, why are other species affected?
Because all species interact in some way
A "population" of a species is whatever we define it to be, right?
An ecosystem includes the organisms and all of the abiotic factors. What does abiotic mean?
What does the word "niche" mean?
Where the organism fits in
What are the four major ways in which species interact?
Predation, parasitism, mutualism, commensalism
What is commensalism?
One species benefits without hurting or helping the other
What is implied by the word, "sustainability?"
Living from the interest and not the capital
Technically speaking, is littering environmental degradation?
No, environmental degradation is when the use of a resource exceeds the replacement rate
What is the difference between "point" and "non-point" pollutants? Which is easier to handle?
Point - source can be identified, Non-point - sources may be multiple and harder to identify. Point source pollutants are much easier to handle
What are the three major factors that determine how harmful a pollutant is?
Toxicity, concentration, persistence
What was Rev. Thomas Malthus' theory about population and food supply?
When unchecked, the population will increase faster than the food supply
Why was Malthus not correct about the date at which mass starvation would occur?
Advances in agricultural sciences, contraceptives, and communication of knowledge
How does Malthus' theory look at the present time?
It will come true eventually
How many more people are born than die each second?
About what portion of the population growth in the next 25 years will occur in developing countries?
What is the upper limit (%) of population growth in the human species?
In what two areas of the world are population increases causing the most problems?
Africa and Central America
Can we feed all of the people in the world in the year 2020?
Yes. There is enough food, but distribution is a problem
From a latitude standpoint, where do 2/3 of the world's people live? With respect to that area, where is most of the food produced?
Between 30N and 30S. 2/3 of the world's food is produced 30-45N.
What type of "reproductive strategy" is characterized by long lives of individuals that respond to a fixed amount of resources?
Flies, mosquitoes, rats, (and many others), all have what kind of reproductive strategy?
From an environmental niche standpoint, are humans "generalists" or "specialists?"
In the environmental degradation equation, PxAxT, what does each letter represent?
Population, Amount, Technology
There is a very high correlation between population, poverty and environmental degradation. True or false?
Would you rather live in a country with a pyramidal or one with a columnar population growth function?
Columnar. They are more balanced
What is the fertility rate for zero population growth in developing countries? In developed countries?
Developing - 2.5, developed - 2.1
What are the two major reasons for increasing the educational levels of women in developing countries?
They control the population and produce 50-80% of the food in developing countries
Women are responsible for producing about how much of the food in developing countries?
Please name a lot of environmental degradation problems for which humans (and population growth) are responsible. There is 5
Air pollution, biodiversity depletion, wastes, water pollution, food production issues
What is the troposphere? Is that where the ozone layer is?
Lowest layer of the atmosphere where the weather occurs. No
Is ozone good or bad?
Both. Serves as a filter but also is an air pollutant
Is the production of global warming gases an east-west or a north-south problem?
Why will malaria incidence likely increase with global warming?
More people will travel between oceans and mosquitoes are expected to survive in hidden cargo
About how fast are the rain forests disappearing?
50 million acres a year or about the area of a football field every second
What is the relationship between population, wealth and use of natural resources between developed and developing countries?
Developed countries contain about 20% of the population, 85% of the world's wealth, use about 90% of the natural resources, and generate 75% of the pollution and wastes
What sector is responsible for the majority of solid wastes produced in the U.S.?
What is the number one ground water pollutant in the U.S.?
About what percent of the water on Earth is salt water in oceans?
What does the word "riparian" mean?
Is the Ogallala aquifer in the central U.S. one that is readily rechargeable?
It's only slightly rechargeable
How much of the fresh water in the world is found in the five Great Lakes of the U.S.?
What is monocropping?
Using land for only one type of crop
What is waterlogging?
Soaking of agricultural land caused by a rising water-table
What is salinization?
The process of increasing salt content in soil
How does the literacy rate of women compare to that of men in most developing countries?
Women typically have lower literacy rates
What is the major global warming gas? What are the two main sources of increases in this gas?
CO2. Mainly from coal/petroleum products and slash and burn agriculture
Besides water vapor, what are the five "greenhouse effect" gases in our atmosphere?
CH4, CO2, O3, N2O, CFC
What is the major source of methane pollution in the U.S.?
What are the three main causes of biodiversity depletion in the world?
Introduced species, overexploitation, and habitat destruction
What human activities are happening in many large animal preserves that are ruining the habitats that were set up to protect endangered species of animals?
The population of pandas in the Wolong Nature Reserve in China is increasing. What species of animals is increasing faster in that nature reserve?
What's "bad" about monocropping, especially in LDCs?
Leaves the soil bare part of the year
What industry is responsible for about 2/3 of the world's annual fresh water use?
What portion of the world's population earns only about $1 U.S. dollar per day?
What portion of the world's population earns only about $2 U.S. dollars per day?
When discussing pesticides in the environment, what is "biological magnification?"
When pesticides move up the food chain and work their way into rivers or lakes, polluting the food chain
Is a detritivore autotrophic or heterotrophic?
What is your ISB 202 instructor's one-word answer to most of the problems humans face?
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