NDCL Theology 10 Midterm


Terms in this set (...)

primeval history
-chapters 1-11 of Genesis
-symbolic accounts about things that happened long before any historical records
-a period of time in which no written records existed, stories were orally passed down before writing existed
-primeval means the same as prehistoric
religious truths learned from creation stories
1. There is only one God.
2. God planned creation.
3. Everything that God made is good.
4. The Sabbath is a special day of rest and worship.
symbolism in the story of the Fall
-the sin is about pride (they're saying, we don't need God, we can BE gods)
-they aren't grateful for their humanity and try to replace God with themselves
-they were ashamed, but when God what happened, neither took responsibility for their actions or repented
original holiness
the original state of human beings in their relationship with God, sharing in the divine life in full communion with Him, before the Fall
original justice
the state of complete harmony of our first parents, Adam and Eve, with themselves, each other, and all of creation before the Fall
-a spiritual principle that makes us the most like God
-only separated from our bodies when we die
-they will live on until they are reunited with our resurrected bodies, it is immortal
original sin
-everyone is affected, no one is exempt
-before even having a chance to commit a sin, everyone, except Jesus and Mary, is born into it
-Adam and Eve transmitted their wounded human nature because of their sin
-the inclination for people to sin
-makes everything hard for us
-doesn't mean humanity is bad, it's just harder for us to be good
-makes it harder for us to know God
-literally-->explains why snakes and people don't get along
-lays down the foundation for all senses of Scripture and foreshadows the Life, Death, and Resurrection of Jesus
-spiritual sense-->a way of God showing His promise to send a Savior to free humanity from the effects of the Fall
stories of Cain and Abel, Noah, and the Tower of Babel
-show the growth and worsening of sin
-show God's promise of salvation-->no matter how bad humanity fell, God still found a way to forgive them and save the descendants of Adam and Eve with salvation
"Adamic" or "Creation" Covenant
-God's Covenant with Adam and Eve
-Adam is made in the image and likeness of God
-God gave Adam dominion over everything as a king
-Adam is like a priest
-Adam is a prophet because he gets to name the animals
-Adam marries Eve
Noahic Covenant
-a promise to never again destroy all creatures with a flood
-found its fulfillment in the New Covenant that Jesus shares with everyone in the world
-sonship restored but shalom lost
-but Noah got drunk-->"his son saw his nakedness"
Abrahamic Covenant
-a different approach than the flood
-will work with Abraham's family to restore blessing to the world
-three promises: 1. a great nation with many descendants and a great name for Abraham 2. land for Abraham and his descendants 3. the making of Abraham and his descendants as blessings for all nations
-prepares the way for the coming of th Messiah, which fulfills the Covenant
Mosaic Covenant
-the renewing of the Covenant with Abraham with Moses
-the Ten Commandments that God gave Moses on Mount Sinai as a set of laws for the Israelites to follow
-the most important sign of faithfulness to the Covenant is to follow the Ten Commandments
Davidic Covenant
-God promised David that his house, kingdom, and throne would last forever
-his son Solomon will build a temple
-God will treat him like a son
-his descendants will rule forever
-fulfilled when Christ established the Kingdom of God because it will last forever and David will reign it for eternity
-there will be a decline of kings after Solomon that would lead to exile (but God will send prophets to fix it)
New Covenant in the Prophets
-foretelling the Covenant with Jesus (through David's line)
-Jeremiah prophesied about a new Covenant that God would make with Israel and Judah, Jesus fulfilled it because He established the Covenant
-Isaiah prophesied about a coming ruler who would be a descendant of Jesse who would slay the wicked, Jesus was this descendant
Eucharistic Covenant
-the Euchrist is the new and eternal covenant
-Jesus comes to fulfill all the Covenants
-He is related to Abraham, David, and Adam
-God sent the spirit of His Son into our hearts
role of Mary in the Incarnation
-Annunciation-->saying yes showed her faith and trust in God
-Theotokos-->God bearer, Mother of God
-God's grace allowed her faith
-Doctrine of the Immaculate Conception-->Mary was conceived without originalism
-the Virgin Birth symbolizes Jesus' divine nature because He was born through the Holy Spirit with the Virgin Mary as His mother and God the Father as His father
-the Virgin Birth symbolizes that Jesus is the new Adam because He will help us in the Heaven and earth that are our ultimate destiny (also because He was born without original sin)
-the Virgin Birth was a sign of Mary's total commitment to God
role of Joseph in the Incarnation
-he showed his trust in God by choosing to believe Mary that she became pregnant through the Holy Spirit
-he listened to everything that God told him through angels in his dreams with unhesitating obedience
-he completely trusts that God will take care of him
-he was a model husband and father and he showed compassion for Mary
-it is speculated that he died before Jesus' public ministry
-he is the patron saint of the universal Church, happy death, workers, and fathers
how Jesus fulfills promises in the Old Testament
-Jesus fulfilled all the Covenants
-through the Incarnation, Jesus took upon himself all human sin so that we might be reconciled with God
-God wanted to show u how much he loved us by taking on human nature and suffering a torturous death to redeem us from our sins
-God used the Incarnation to show us an example of perfect holiness, Jesus, and how to be holy in our everyday lives
-the name Jesus means "God saves" in Hebrew and it reflects His divine identity and His mission as Savior of the world
-the title Christ reveals that Jesus would fulfill all of God's promises for salvation because He was the Messiah, or the anointed one
reasons for the Incarnation
1. redemption for our sins
2. so that we can understand the depth of God's love
3. to give us a model of holiness
4. so that we can share in the divine life
5. to destroy the Devil's power
events of the Passion
-an account of the passion with the same basic timeline of events (some details vary) appears in all four Gospels
-Jesus' suffering and death
Jesus enters Jerusalem
-Jews made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem every year for Passover because the temple was very important
-the chief priests didn't like Jesus because: 1. Jesus was growing in popularity (ex. the people praised Him when He came into Jerusalem and called Him the Son of David) and 2. Jesus always called out the priests when they were being hypocritical (He openly called them hypocrites when they acted wrongly) so they thought of a way to get Him arrested and killed
Last Supper
-takes place at a Passover meal (unleavened bread/the cedar meal, remembrance of the night that the Israelites were freed from slavery)
-Jesus was a good Jew so He celebrated the Passover in Jerusalem
-He washed the feet of the apostles, even though this task was usually meant for the servants (He set the example of being a servant as a leader)
-then Judas left
-Jesus shared the meal, then instead of saying the prayers about the Passover lamb, He said them about himself, then the bread and wine were transformed into His body and blood
-now He is the lamb that is going to save us from death
-every time we have Mass, we are celebrating this moment and the death of Jesus, we are transported out of time, Heaven and earth meet, and angels are present (its like we are present at the Last Supper and the crucifixion, which is called anamnesis)
-at the end of the Last Supper they sang psalms
Garden of Gethsemane
-after the Last Supper Jesus and the apostles went out to the garden to pray
-Jesus prayed so hard that His sweat became like drops of blood, which is an actual stress-induced medical condition
-the apostles fall asleep multiple times, even though Jesus asked them to stay awake with Him
-then Judas showed up with a band of soldiers that were hired by the chief priests (connection to Adam because Adam betrayed God in a garden and Judas betrayed Jesus in a garden)
trial before the Sanhedrin (Jewish religious leaders)
-they had the trial at night so that less people would know it was going on and less people would be mad
-they found Jesus guilty of blasphemy
-they couldn't stone Jesus because the Romans were the ones in charge and they didn't let the Jews give death penalty
trial before Pontius Pilate
-the chief priests said that Jesus was inciting rebellion against Rome
-Pilate saw the angry people and was scared because he could lose his job, so he did what the people wanted
-Jesus knew that the trail was unfair, so He didn't really say anything to defend Himself because He knew that He didn't actually do anything wrong
-soldiers humiliated Jesus by mocking Him with the crown of thorns and the scarlet robe
-Pilate then sent Jesus to Herod but Herod wanted Him killed too
-Peter denied Jesus three times, then the cock crowed
scourging of Jesus
-Roman execution was meant to be so horrible that it would frighten people into obedience
-the whip was most likely made of sharpened glass or metal and was meant to tear the skin from a person's back
--> sometimes people died just from this
-Jesus' beating was most likely more severe than it was for other criminals
-after the whipping, with His back all whipped, Jesus had to carry the cross
-Pilate thought everything was over, but the people wanted Jesus crucified, so Pilate agreed
-Pilate said he "washed his hands" of this decision
Jesus' crucifixion
-took place at Golgotha, which means the place of the skull
-He was stripped totally naked in order to humiliate Him
-nails were put through His hands and feet but they were probably also tied so that the nails didn't rip through
-a soldier stabbed Jesus to make sure that He was dead, then blood and water poured out and the soldiers realized that Jesus truly was the Son of God
-often people suffered on the cross for days, but in order to not have the bodies up on the Sabbath, the Jews had the Romans break the legs of the people being crucified in order to make them die faster, but Jesus was already dead, which is why they stabbed Him
-Jesus' death fulfilled many Old Testament prophecies (ex. "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?" first line of Psalm 22)
Jesus' death
-was on the cross for 6 hours or less
-there were dramatic natural events when Jesus died-->an earthquake, an eclipse, and the earthquake split the temple veil
-the splitting of the veil showed how the barrier between humans and God had been removed
-usually bodies were left on the cross to be eaten by animals but Joseph of Arimathea, a follower of Jesus, convinced Pilate (possibly with money) to let him takes down Jesus' body and bury it
-Jesus' tomb was watched by guards so that no one would steal His body
Paschal Mystery
-the Passion, death, and Resurrection of Jesus-->the work that God the Father sent his Son to accomplish on earth
-the heart of Jesus' saving work on earth
-refers to events that were historical and also transcend history
-confirms that we will live again after we die
-tells us that God can always bring forth goodness and healing out of suffering
human reasons for Jesus' death
-lots of physical pain and suffering
-Jewish leaders--> blashphemy
-Romans--> treason
divine reasons for Jesus' death
-to save us from our sins (He felt the weight of all sin combined)
-important part of our faith
Suffering Servant
-Jesus served us all by suffering and dying for us to save our sins
-His obedience to the Father's will helped explain how we have been freed from our sins
Paschal Lamb
-Jesus' sacrifice on the cross is compared to the blood of the Passover Lamb that saved the Israelites
-the lamb saved the firstborn sons during the Passover, Jesus' death and Resurrection saved all of humanity from death, slavery, and sin
Ransom for Many
-Jesus paid the ransom to release us from our slavery to sin
-"God paid for you with the precious lifeblood of Christ" Peter 1:18-19
-used as a metaphor to explain to the Gentiles the saving nature of Jesus' death
evidence of the Resurrection
-New Testament books were written very close to the time of the actual events and there is greater proof for their authenticity than for almost any other ancient writing
-the early Church believed in the Resurrection
-Jesus' body was not produced (if the apostles stole it, why would they die for a hoax?)
-there was a profound change in Jesus' followers
significance of the Resurrection
-if Jesus was truly resurrected, then He really was more than a regular human because He would've been the first person to raise Himself from the dead
-if He was right about coming back from the dead, then His other teachings were also true
-His Resurrection means that Heaven is now open
Jesus' descent to Hell
-this happened after Jesus died but before He rose
-He let out all the people waiting in Hell and sent them to Heaven (let the righteous souls out to see God)
-Jesus went back up to Heaven 40 days after the Resurrection
-He stayed on earth fr these 40 days and taught the apostles how to be the leaders of the Church and how to interpret Scriptures
-His disciples watched as He descended into Heaven and went from physically being on earth to being in Heaven with a human beating heart
salvation (saved from/for)
-we are saved from guilt and shame, loneliness and despair, additions/attachments to things, and death
-we are saved for Heaven, forgiveness and healing, joy, freedom, loving communion, and eternal life (beatific vision)
particular judgement
-being judged by Jesus right after we die
-our souls will be rewarded based on our faith and works
final judgement
-when Jesus will return in glory and all of the dead will be raised
-all people will be judged at the end of the world
-not a physical place
-perfect communion with the Holy Trinity
-joy that will last for all of eternity
-not a physical place
-permanent punishment and separation from God
-if God is the source of all happiness, then this is complete agony and torture for all of eternity
-when most of us die, we are not perfect saints but we are not the worst sinners
-we need to be purged of all the bad things about us before we can go to Heaven
-we can pray for people in purgatory so that they can get to Heaven faster (2 Maccabees 12:46)
redemptive suffering
-the Christian belief that human suffering, when accepted and offered up in union with the Passion of Jesus, can remit the just punishment for one's sins or for the sins of another, or for the other physical or spiritual needs of oneself or another
-"No one has greater love than this, to lay down one's life for one's friends." (John 15:13)
objective truth
its truth conditions are met without biases caused by feelings, ideas, opinions, etc., of a person
-the property of being in accord with fact or reality
-not dependent on the person who knows it
-nothing the knower can do can change the truth
-discovered, not invented
-unchanging, even though the understanding of it changes (ex. the world is flat-->the world is round)
-beliefs cannot change a fact
-not affected by the attitude of the one professing it
-we must separate people from ideas because people do not equal their ideas and opinions)
-dependent on the person who knows it
-everyone is entitled to a different one
-the idea that there is no universal truth but that truth differs from person to person and culture to culture
-truth is relative to what each person or culture thinks
-the greatest problem of our time
-enduring actions or ideas that you don't agree with
-the ability or willingness to accept something, in particular the existence of opinions or behavior that one does not necessarily agree with
-the science of what humans ought to do by reason of who they are
-to find out how we must act we must rely on human experience,human intellect, and divine revelation
-hinges on who we truly are
-to find out what is truly moral requires a correct view of the human person
-we live a moral life by deciding and then acting according to God's plan for us which builds character, and in turn, virtue
-healthy, good habits that help us to do good and empower us to become what God wants us to be
-the heart of the moral life
-emphasize that who we are greatly affects what we do
-form our character and make us Christ-like
-moral skills for Christian living that help us to act naturally
-equip us to face both internal and external obstacles on our journey to God
theological virtues
-faith, hope, and charity (love)
-empower us to be good so that we may do good
-infused by God into our souls and enable us to live in relationship to the Blessed Trinity
enables us to believe in God, all that God has said and revealed to us, amd all that the Church proposes for our belief because God is truth itself
enables us to desire Heaven and eternal life, trusting in Christ's promises and relying on the help of the Holy Spirit and His graces
charity (love)
-the greatest virtue of all
-empowers us to love God above all things for His own sake, and our neighbor as ourselves for the love of God
-enables us to observe the commandments aand love everyone, even our enemies
-helps us to practice all the other virtues and uplifts our human ability to love, raising it to the perfection of divine love
cardinal virtues
-prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance
-the source of all other good habits
-can gain them through education and repeated practice in using them
-practical wisdom that helps us discover goodness and choose the right means of achieving it
-the virtue of responsible decision-making
-gives the other cardinal virtues direction and control as we make conscientious decisions
-inclines us to lead good, ethical, moral lives of action
-helps our conscience make correct judgements
-involves relationships with others and our life in community
-gives both God and neighbor what is due by their right
-requires us to worship and adore God since He is our all-loving Creator
-helps us to respect the rights of all other humans
-gives us the strength and courage to stand firm with our own convictions and do the right and moral thing
-helps us to resist temptation and to overcome obstacles to living a good life
-helps us make sacrifices and overcome fears of criticism, failure, rejection, and disappointment as we pursue the good
-gives us the "spiritual guts" to resist peer pressure which might tempt us to conform to evil practices
-the virtue of moderation that brings balance to our life
-helps regulate our appetite for the good things that God has given us
-assists us in counteracting the vices of greed, gluttony, and lust by helping us master the appetites of our senses and indulge them within honorable limits
moral decision making
-any good decision requires your God-given intellect to dig out the facts
-the foundation of all knowledge we acquire comes from answering questions beginning with who, what, when, where, why, and how
-human reason, using our intellects, helps us to recognize and judge which actions correspond to our true good
-some actions are intrinsically always evil and wrong because they go against God's will and destroy human good
-the most important element is the moral object because a good intention or circumstance cannot change a bad action
STOP method
S: search out the facts
T: think out alternatives and consequences
O: others-consult them and consider how your actions will affect them
P: pray to the Lord for guidance
moral object
-the decisive element in morality
-the moral content of an action that suggests whether the action is directed toward the good
-the aim or objective of a course of action
-resides in the will of the person acting
-is a significant factor in judging the morality of the objective act
-Jesus insisted on good intentions for all of our actions
-the conditions or facts attending an event and having some bearing on it
-can increase or decrease the moral goodness or evil of an action
-sometimes make no difference in judging the morality of a case, and sometimes they make all the difference
says that we have no power to choose, which is proved wrong because we can make choices and because we feel pride and guilt
external freedom
freedom from factors outside ourselves that take away our choices (ex. homeless-->need food)
internal freedom
freedom from things internally (ex. anxiety attacks on planes)
limits to freedom
-some we do not chose for ourselves, others are because of our choices
-physical, emotional, intellectual, ignorance, inadvertence, duress, inordinate attachments, fear, and habit
-invincible--> you have no way of knowing something so you aren't responsible
-vincible--> you should know
natural law
-what God has put in our hearts
-we know what is right or wrong
revealed law
-what we get from the Scriptures/God
civil law
-for our safety in practical life
-an example is speed limits
church law
-a practical application of revealed law
-the awareness of the moral or ethical aspect of one's conduct together with the ruge to prefer right over wrong
-3 main aspects: 1. awareness of God's call to be/love 2. practical judgement and 3. the intellect
-formed and informed by the experiences we have and the choices we make
-you must always follow it but it can sometimes be wrong
-sometimes it is hard to follow because of peer pressure
-fulfills the law and summarizes the demands of the Commandments, which are a loving response to God, not an obligation
Commandments 1-3
1. I the Lord am your God, you should have no strange gods before me.
2. Do not take the Lord's name in vain.
3. Keep holy the Sabbath
first Commandment
-it is a foundation for all the other commandments
-follow it by having faith, hope, and love
second Commandment
-keep it by recognizing that God's name is holy
-break it by breaking promises made in God's name, blasphemy, or taking the Lord's name in vain
third Commandment
-keep it by making Sunday a day to stop normal routines and rest, going to Church, praying, doing acts of service, and remember that the Sabbath is our gift to God to thank Him for the gifts He gives us
-break it by skipping mass or having the wrong attitude about Church (I don't need this, I can pray anywhere)