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APUS Supreme Court Cases
Terms in this set (47)
Adkins v. Children's Hospital
(1923) declared a minimum wage law for women unconstitutional on the grounds that it denied women women freedom of contract
Schechter v. US
(1936) sometimes called the "sick chicken case." Unanimously declared the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) unconstitutional on the grounds: that the act delegated legislative power to the executive; that there was a lack of constitutional authority for such legislation; and that it sought to regulate businesses that were wholly intrastate in character.
Korematsu v. US
(1941) upheld the constitutionality of detention camps for Japanese Americans during WWII
Ex parte Endo
(1944) forbade the internment of Japanese Americans born in the US (Nisei)
Brown v. Board of Ed
(1954) unanimous decision declaring "separate but equal" unconstitutional
Gideon v. Wainwright
(1963) extends to the defendant the right of counsel in all state and federal criminal trials regardless of their ability to pay
Escobedo v. IL
(1964) a defendant must be allowed access a to lawyer before questioning by police
Miranda v. AZ
(1966)ruled that those subjected to in-custody interrogation be advised of their constitutional rights to an attorney and their right to remain silent
Roe v. Wade
(1973) legalized abortion by ruling that state laws could not restrict it during the first 3 months of pregnancy. (based on 4th amendment: rights of a person to be secure in their persons)
US v. Nixon
(1974) rejected Nixon's claim to an absolutely unqualified privilege against any judicial process
Bakke v. Regents of University of CA
(1978) Ambiguous ruling by a badly divided court that dealt with affirmative action programs that used race as a basis of selecting participants. upheld affirmative action, but with a 4/4/1 split, it was a very weak decision.
Clinton v. Jones
(1997) rejecting an appeal by Pres. Clinton in a sexual harassment suit, the Court ruled that a sitting president did not have temporary immunity from a lawsuit for actions outside the realm of official duties.
Boy Scouts of America v. Dale
(2000) ruled that the Boy Scouts of America could dismiss a troop leader after learning he was gay, holding that the right to freedom of association outweighed a NJ anti-discrimination statute
Bush v. Gore
(2000) ruled that manual recounts of presidential ballots in the Nov. 2000 election could not proceed because inconsistent evaluation standards in different counties violated the equal protection clause. In effect, the ruling meant Bush would win the election.
Marbury v. Madison
(1803) established its role as the arbiter of the constitutionality of federal laws (judicial review)
Fletcher v. Peck
(1810) upholds sanctity of contracts
McCulloch v. MD
(1819) states can't tax the fed. gov't (or National Bank) and confirmed the constitutionality of the Bank
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
(1819) NH attempted to take over Dartmouth by revising its colonial charter; ruled that the charter was protected under the contract clause of the constitution (upholds sanctity of contracts)
Gibbons v. Ogden
(1824) clarified the commerce clause and affirmed Congressional power over interstate commerce
Johnson v. McIntosh
(1823) established that indian tribes had rights to tribal lands that preceded all other American law; only the fed. gov't could take land from tribes
Cherokee Nation v. GA
(1831) Indian nations are a "domestic dependent nation" --> established a "trust relationship" with the tribes directly under federal authority
Worcester v. GA
(1832) established tribal autonomy within their boundaries, i.e. tribes were "distinct political communities, having territorial boundaries within which their authority is exclusive."
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
(1837) interests of a community are more important than those of a business; supremacy of society's interest over private interests
Commonwealth v. Hunt
(1842) declared labor unions unlawful and that strikes were lawful weapons
Scott v. Sanford
(1857) Taney ruled that Dred Scott was not a citizen and had no standing in court; Scott's residence in a free state and territory had not made him free since he returned to MO; Congress had no power to prohibit slavery in a territory (based on the 5th Amendment: right of a person to be secure from seizure of property), thus voiding the Missouri Compromise of 1820 (and others that followed).
Ex parte Milligan
(1866) ruled that a civilian can't be tried in military courts while civil courts are available
Civil Rights Cases
(1883) legalized segregation with regard to private property
Wabash, St. Louis, and Pacific RR Co. v. IL
(1886) declared state-passed Granger laws that regulated interstate commerce unconstitutional
Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul RR Co. v. Minnesota
(1890) Granger law regulations were violations of the 5th Amendment: right to property
Pollock v. The Farmers' Loan and Trust Co.
(1895) declared income tax under the Wilson Gorman Tariff to be unconstitutional
US v E.C. Knight Co.
(1895) narrow interpretation of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act--> Court undermined the authority of the fed. gov't to act against monopolies
Plessy v. Ferguson
(1896) legalized segregation in publicly owned facilities
"Insular Cases"/ Downes v. Bidwell
(1901) confirmed the right of the federal government to place tariffs on good entering the US From US Territories on the grounds that "the Constitution doesn't follow the flag"
Northern Securities Co v. US
(1904) re-established the authority of the federal gov't to fight monopolies under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Lochner v. NY
(1905) declared a NY Act that limited working hours of bakers unconstitutional --> denial of the 14th Amendment
Muller v. OR
(1908) 1st case to use "Brandeis Brief;" recognized a 10 hr work day for women on the grounds of health and community concerns
Hammer v. Dagenhart
(1918) declared the Keating Owen Act (child labor act) unconstitutional on the grounds that it was an invasion of state authority
Schenck v. US
(1919) Unanimously upheld the Espionage Act of 1917 which declared that people who interfered with the war effort were subject to imprisonment; declared that the 1st Amendment right to freedom of speech was not absolute; free speech could be limited if its exercise presented a "clear and present danger."
Ableman v. Booth
(1859) denied the right of a state to interfere with a federal case and upheld the constitutionality of the law
Munn v. IL
(1877) any business that serves the public interest was subject to state control (i.e. RR or grain elevators)
Standard Oil of NJ v. US
(1911) Ordered the dissolution of the Standard Oil Co. which was judged to be a monopoly
Butler v. US
(1936) AAA declared unconst.
National Labor Relations Board v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp.
(1937) upheld constitutionality of the Wagner ACt. Congress could regulate labor of interstate commerce companies
Mapp v. OH
(1961) held that the 14th Amendment prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures by state and local officials. use of evidence obtained is illegal
Baker v. Carr
(1962) congressional voting districts must be about equal size in every state (one man- one vote)
School District of Abington Twp v. Schemp
(1963) ruled against prayer and Bible readings in public schools (separation of church and state)
Swan v. Charlotte-Macklenburg Board of Ed
(1971) busing was sanctioned to help integrate schools
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
APUSH - Period 6 (1865-1898)
AP US History Period 4 (1800-1848)
Period 2: 1607-1754 AP US History
AP US History Period 2 (1607-1754)
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