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chapter 13 - metals, paint and soil
Terms in this set (51)
T/F: the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is called the atomic mass number
in neutron activation analysis, an element is identified by measuring the energy emitting:
T/F: it is not necessary that the collected paint from a vehicle involved in a hit-and-run accident be close to the area of the car suspected of being in contact with the victim
T/F: the variety of coatings applied to the body of an automobile adds significant diversity to automobile paint and contributes to the forensic significance of automobile paint comparisons
T/F: a continuous spectrum is most helpful in identifying a particular element because it serves as a unique "fingerprint" of an element
T/F: mutilated bullets are often not suitable for traditional microscopic comparisons against an exemplar test-fired bullet
T/F: if soil is found adhering to an object, the investigator should remove the soil particles from the object and send them to the laboratory
T/F: all atoms of an element have the same number of neutrons
radioactivity is composed of
alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays
T/F: the presence of trace elements is useful because they provide markers that may establish the source of a material
T/F: emission spectroscopy measures the frequency of light emitted by an atom when one of its electrons moves to a higher orbital
T/F: the concentration of the absorbing element is directly proportional to the quantity of the light absorbed
T/F: the major advantage of neutron activation analysis is that it provides a nondestructive method for identifying and quantifying trace elements
after examining small paint chips from an auto accident scene and using the PDQ database, the crime lab worker can determine what about a vehicle?
make, model, and year
T/F: after the paint has been applied to a surface, the solvent evaporates
what is a nondestructive technique for identifying and quantifying trace elements in a test sample
neutron activation analysis
T/F: the minerals found in different soil samples cannot effectively be used to determine whether or not they have the same origin
which paint coating provides resistance to corrosion?
T/F: the electron and proton have the same mass
what is the logical first step in soil analysis?
a. comparison of dried soil sample for color and texture
b. use of density-gradient tube technique
c. examination of minerals and rocks under high power magnification
examination for presence of debris under low power magnification
automobile finishes typically contain which layer(s)?
electrocoat primer, colorcoat, and clearcoat
which paint coat helps resist UV radiation and acid rain
the nucleus of an atom contains what subatomic particles
protons and neutrons
which is not part of the composition of paint - binder, adhesive, pigment, solvent?
what type of evidence would be expected to have trace elements?
a. paint and bullet fragments
b. glass and metal objects
c. soil and gun primer particles
d. all of the above
T/F: the investigator should not try to remove trace paint evidence found on a tool but package the tool for laboratory examination instead
in a simple emission spectrograph, excitation of the specimen under investigation is accomplished with a(n)
atoms that have the same number of protons but differ in the number of neutrons are called
T/F: neutron activation analysis is favored in crime laboratories because of its low cost and ease of use
the ____ properties of crystals, such as refractive index and birefringence, provide points of identification that help characterize them
gamma rays are
which would be least useful in identifying a mineral crystal - geometric shape, refractive index, color, or size?
T/F: an atom has zero net electrical charge, which indicates that it contains the same number of protons and electrons
neutron activation analysis involves bombarding specimens with neutrons and then measuring the resultant
T/F: isotopes have different atomic mass numbers
the emission spectrograph is used to determine the
T/F: emission, spectroscopy and neutron activation analysis do not provide any information as to how the elements are combined into compounds
paint chips may be individualized to a single source by examining their
color and layer structure
T/F: neutrons carry no charge
the polymeric makeup of paint binders can be readily compared by
pyrolysis gas chromatography
T/F: gamma rays are a high energy form of electromagnetic radiation
the most abundant element of the earths crust is
which property imparts paint with its most distinctive forensic characteristics
T/F: all atoms of an element have the same number of protons
an element is selective in the frequency of light it will absorb due to its
electron energy levels
paint binders can be chemically analyzed using
IR spec and pyrolysis GC
which coat represents the "eye appeal"?
which type of radiation is not given off by radioactive decay - gamma rays, beta particles, x-rays, or alpha particles?
T/F: surface texture is the most important of the characteristic that a criminalist looks for when comparing paint chips
a "fingerprint" of an element is obtained using
T/F: alpha particles are a form of radiation consisting of electrons
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