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38 terms

AP Government Unit 1 Test

STUDY
PLAY
government
institutions and processes through which public policies are made for society. typically maintains a national defense, procides goods and services, collects taxes, and preserves order. Also socializes the young
Two basic questions of government
How should we govern? What should government do?
Politics
The process by which we select our government leaders and what policies they produce. Politics produces authoritative decisions about public issues.
Policy making system
The process by which policy comes into being and evolves over time
People have
interests, problems, concerns
linkage institutions
channels through which people's concerns become political issues on the policy agenda. These include political parties, elections, news and entertainment media.
policy agenda
Issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and arise when peole disagree about problems and how to fix them. Policy agendas change regularily
Policy making institutions
ranches of government charged with taking action on political issues (Legislative, executive, courts, bureaucracies
public policy
Every decision that government makes, a law it passes, a budget it extablishes, and even a decision not to act on an issues
Impact of politcies
Policy impacts carry the political system back to its point of origin - the concerns of the people
Democracy
system of electing poicymakers and of organizing government so that policy represents and resonds to the public preferences
Components of Traditional Democratic Theory
Equality in voting, effective participation, enlightened understanding, citizen control
Challenges to Democracy
Increased Technical expertise, limited participation in government, escalating campaign costs, diverse political itnerests (policy gridlock)
Political Culture
An overall set of values widely shared within a society
American culture comprised of
Liberty, egalitarianism, individualism, laissez faire, populism
constitution
a nation's basic laws. creates political institutions, assigns or divides powers in government and often provides certain guarantees to citizens
Natural Rights
rights inherent in human beings not dependent on government
consent of the governed
government derives its authority by santion of the people
limited government
certain restrictions placd on government to protect natural rights of citizens
Philosophies of Government
Human nature, political conflict, objective of government, natture of government
human nature
self-interested
political conflicts
lead to factions. Factions must be checked
objective of government
preservation of property
nature of government
power against power so that no one faction rises above and overwhelms another
Individual Rights Issues
Some written into Constitution.
The Madisonian Model
Prevent a tyranny of the majority, Madison proposed a government of limited majority, separating powers, checksa and balancies, and establish a federal system
Constitutional Change
Judicial interpretation, changing political parties, technology, increasing demands on policymakers
importance of flexibility
constitution is short and doesn't prescribe every detail, the constitution is not static but flexible for future generations to determine their own needs
Constitution and democracy
gradual democratization of constitution with additiona of amendments so more people can vote (14th, 15th, 17th, 19th, 23rd, 24th, 26th)
Scope of government
constitution reinforces individualism and provides multiple access points for citizens and encourages stalemate and limits government
Federalism
a way of organizing a nation so that two or more levels of governmetn have formal authority over the land and people
unitary government
a way of organizang a nation so that all power resides in the central government
confederation
the UN is a modern example
intergovernmental relation
working of federal sysem. The entire set of interactions among national state and local governments
Federalism decentalizes politics
More opportunities to participate
Federalism decentralizes policies
Federal and state government handle different problems.
division of power
supremacy clause, article VII of the constitution states th following are supreme: The U.S. constitution, Laws of Contress, Treaties
elastic clause
congress can do anything necessary and proper to carry out