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institutions and processes through which public policies are made for society. typically maintains a national defense, procides goods and services, collects taxes, and preserves order. Also socializes the young
The process by which we select our government leaders and what policies they produce. Politics produces authoritative decisions about public issues.
channels through which people's concerns become political issues on the policy agenda. These include political parties, elections, news and entertainment media.
Issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and arise when peole disagree about problems and how to fix them. Policy agendas change regularily
Policy making institutions
ranches of government charged with taking action on political issues (Legislative, executive, courts, bureaucracies
Every decision that government makes, a law it passes, a budget it extablishes, and even a decision not to act on an issues
Impact of politcies
Policy impacts carry the political system back to its point of origin - the concerns of the people
system of electing poicymakers and of organizing government so that policy represents and resonds to the public preferences
Components of Traditional Democratic Theory
Equality in voting, effective participation, enlightened understanding, citizen control
Challenges to Democracy
Increased Technical expertise, limited participation in government, escalating campaign costs, diverse political itnerests (policy gridlock)
a nation's basic laws. creates political institutions, assigns or divides powers in government and often provides certain guarantees to citizens
Philosophies of Government
Human nature, political conflict, objective of government, natture of government
The Madisonian Model
Prevent a tyranny of the majority, Madison proposed a government of limited majority, separating powers, checksa and balancies, and establish a federal system
Judicial interpretation, changing political parties, technology, increasing demands on policymakers
importance of flexibility
constitution is short and doesn't prescribe every detail, the constitution is not static but flexible for future generations to determine their own needs
Constitution and democracy
gradual democratization of constitution with additiona of amendments so more people can vote (14th, 15th, 17th, 19th, 23rd, 24th, 26th)
Scope of government
constitution reinforces individualism and provides multiple access points for citizens and encourages stalemate and limits government
a way of organizing a nation so that two or more levels of governmetn have formal authority over the land and people
working of federal sysem. The entire set of interactions among national state and local governments
division of power
supremacy clause, article VII of the constitution states th following are supreme: The U.S. constitution, Laws of Contress, Treaties
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