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Protestant Reformation

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What events weakened the Catholic Church?
The Western Schism, Babylonian Captivity, and 4th crusade
What were indulgences?
Forgiveness of sins that the church sold to generate money
Why did indulgences anger the poor?
Because they represented corruption and the poor could not afford them
Calls for reform for the Catholic Church was in what written by Martin Luther
The 95 Theses nailed to the door of Wittenberg Castle Church
When was the 95 Theses put on the church door?
October 31, 1517
What did Luther charge the church of?
Criticize the sale of indulgences as the selling of salvation for profit, and that salvation was attainable through Gods grace not rituals like the sacraments
When did Luther translate the Bible into German?
1534
Who excommunicated Luther?
Pope Leo X
Who confiscated church wealth and property?
German princes who opposed the Holy Roman Emperor
What did peasants revolt over?
Church taxes and noble rule until 100,000 were slaughtered by nobles
What Holy Roman Emperor was unable to force Catholicism in Germany?
Charles V
What family did Charles V belong to?
The Habsburg family
What areas did the Habsburgs control?
Netherlands, Spain, Austria, Hungary, and part of Italy
How was Germany split?
North was Lutheran and south was catholic
What was the Peace of Augsburg?
A proclamation that Charles V made officially recognizing the Lutherans that stopped fighting in 1555
Who was Charles forced to abdicate his throne to after the peace of Augsburg?
His brother
How did Luther believe services should be spoken to the public?
In the vernacular
What was the source of all questions in the Lutheran church?
The Bible
What was predestination?
That God had a predetermined destiny for all people
Who did the Calvinists believe would receive salvation?
The "elect", chosen by God
What was Protestant work ethic?
Wealth based on hard work and thrift was a virtue
What did the Protestant work ethic later encourage?
Support of capitalism and industrial growth
What were Calvinism called in England and France?
Puritans; Huguenots
Who did the reformation provide an opportunity to take power from the church?
King Henry VIII
Who refused King Henry VIII an annulment from his wife?
Pope Clement VII
Who did King Henry VIII want to divorce?
Catherine, the mother of his 6 female children
What was The Act of Supremacy of 1534?
An act that declared the king the head of the Church of England (Anglican Church)
Who was Edward VI?
Henry's son by his 3rd wife, made the Anglican Church more Protestant
Who was Mary Tudor?
Henry's daughter by his first wife, and used violence to return to Catholicism
What was Mary Tudors nickname?
Bloody Mary
Who was from Henry's first wife and ruled as a Protestant but was tolerant of Catholics?
Elizabeth I
What English family held Catholic sympathies and ruled in the English Civil War?
The Stuarts
What country resisted Anglicanism in the north?
Ireland
What was the Catholic Reformation?
A series of actions to restore their reputation and membership
Who banned the sale of indulgences and attacked Church corruption?
The Council of Trent
Who led the Jesuits?
Ignatius Loyola
Who were the Jesuits?
Missionaries who sought to restore and spread faith, later successful in Asia & Americas
What was meant to root out heresy and kept Spain firmly Catholic?
The Spanish Inquisition
What was the index of forbidden books?
An index the Catholic Church published to limit the spread of Protestant teachings
What countries were Protestant?
England, Scotland, Scandinavia, North Germany
What counties were Catholic?
Italy, France, Spain, Ireland, South Germany
What did Charles's abdication lead to?
His brother Ferdinand becoming the HRE and his incredibly catholic son, Phillip II taking the throne of Spain
Who did protestants in the Netherlands start revolting under from Spain?
William of Orange
Who did William beg to help him gain freedom from Spain?
Queen Elizabeth
What was the Spanish Armada?
An invasion fleet in 1588 launched by Spain in response to England's support of the protestants
The English defeated the much larger armada due to who?
Sir Francis Drake
When did the Netherlands become a free nation?
In 1609 because of Spain's loss
What temporarily ended fighting between Catholics and Huguenots in France?
The Edict of Nantes
What was the Edict of Nantes?
A treaty issued by Henry IV granting religious freedom to the Huguenots
What guaranteed that all future wars would be exponentially more costly?
Gun powder and large citizen armies
What was the culmination of religious struggles in Europe?
The Thirty Years War
When was the Thirty Years War?
1618-1648
How did the Thirty Years War start?
With the Defenestration of Prague where German Protestants attacked catholic governors
Where did the Thirty Years War occur?
On German soil resulting in the death of 1/3 of the HRE population
What was an example of countries switching sides in the Thirty Years War just for political benefit?
France was catholic but fought with the protestants because Spain was also catholic and wanted to beat them for 2nd place in the world
What was the Peace of Westphalia?
A treaty that ended the Thirty Years War which allowed all principalities and cities to choose their own religion
How did Luther inspire literacy?
He encouraged his followers to turn to the Bible for answers so they started reading more
What was the significance of the Protestant reformation?
It broke monopoly power of the Catholic Church, it let Europe become more accepting of other religions, shaping how Americans think today, and it fed humanistic influences of the renaissance
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