Honors Biology Semester Exam
Terms in this set (74)
designating an enzyme
does mix (regular sand and water)
does not mix (magic sand and water)
Organism, population, community, and ecosystem
What are the units of the biosphere?
The input of solar energy and the planet's movement in space.
What influences climate? How is climate changing now? What is causing these changes?
the variety of living things, encompassing genetic diversity, species diversity, and ecosystem diversity; population ecology influences this
a nonliving component of an ecosystem, such as air, water, or temperature -----> a living component of a biological community; an organism, or a factor pertaining to one or more organisms
r-strategist is the average contribution of each individual to population growth
K-strategist is the carrying capacity
r-strategist is what? K-strategist?
carrying capacity, depends on species and resources available in the habitat
the maximum population size that a particular environment can sustain, what does this depend on?
DDT was a harmful chemical that was originally intended to kill insects but ended up killing many other species
What was DDT?
It was killing animals rather than insects
What problems did DDT cause?
Rachel Carson wrote a book that raised awareness for the harmful effects of DDT which ended up banning DDT. It affected the world because the world could no longer use this deadly chemical.
How did Rachel Carson make changes? How did this affect the world?
Toxins eliminate parts of the population. When alien species enter a new ecosystem, they can affect its population most likely for the worst
How do toxins influence ecosystems? What happens when alien species enter a new ecosystem?
The amount of numbers determines the amount of protons in the nucleus of an atom which determines what type of element that atom is
What does the periodic table show about atoms of elements - what do the numbers mean?
Monosaccharides = (C6 H12 O6)
Disaccharides = (C12 H22 O11)
What is the chemical formula for monosaccharides? Disaccharides?
Body building materials
What is the primary function of proteins?
Galactose + Glucose = Lactose
Glucose + Glucose = Maltose
Fructose + Glucose = Sucrose
What are the organic compound groups? What are they made of?
What polymer is made by the dehydration synthesis?
Cells break bonds between monomers by adding water, this helps cells to digest polymers easily
How are polymers made by dehydration synthesis?
To speed up chemical reactions like digestion
What are the functions of enzymes?
Enzymes reaction site is where reactions begin and can set off a specific set off chemical reactions at one time
What is meant by their specificity and active site?
a specific substance on which an enzyme acts. each enzyme only recognizing a certain one for the reaction it starts
Based on the substrate they interact with and chemical reaction they begin
How are enzymes named?
Benedict's test for sugar would turn what color for positive?
Biuret's test for proteins would turn what color for positive?
Iodine's test for starch would turn what color for positive?
Brown paper's test for lipids would turn what color for positive?
DOMAINS: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
KPCOFG: Kingdom, Phyla, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
How are living things classified? Domains? KPCOFGs?
1 Meter = 1x10^9 nanometers, symbol: (μm)
Meter ----> Nanometer? Symbol for nanometer?
1 Meter = 1000 Millimeters
Meter ----> Millimeter?
1 Meter = 100 Centimeters
Meter ----> Centimeter
1 Meter = 1x10^6 Micrometers
Meter ----> Micrometer
Larger the magnification, smaller the field of view
Relationship between field of view (FOV) and magnification?
Eyepiece x Objective
How is magnification determined?
You need both in order to see what you are looking at under your microscope
What is importance of light and diaphram?
Place the substance that you are examining between two glass slides and add a substance, most likely water
How do you prepare a slide to observe under a microscope?
First choose a magnification, than choose lighting, than use coarse focus to adjust sight, than fine focus and adjust to best view or focus of specimen
Explain how you focus to be sure to find the specimen
Eukaryotic cells are much more complex and larger than prokaryotic cells. They are similar because they both contain DNA
Difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? Similarities?
Plant - Cell Wall and Chloroplasts
Animal - Plasma Membrane and Mitochondria
Differences between plan and animal cells?
little enzyme packages (digesting food)
wrapping it up (manufacturing and packaging system)
rough ER has ribosomes, smooth doesn't
rough vs. smooth ER?
packaging things up, gather simple molecules and combines them to make molecules that are more complex, sends them out
get rid of toxins, digest alcohol, many of these are in liver cells
composed of proteins, extend throughout the cytosol
threadlike structures, tough and flexible framework that supports the cell
hollow structures, maintain cell shape and used in movement
Only allows certain substances to pass through
What is it meant by selectively permeable?
Phospholipid bilayer, heads hydrophilic, tails hydrophobic; anything lipid soluble can get through the membrane
What is the structure of the cell membrane? How does the chemical structure affect the function of the membrane?
the spontaneous tendency of a substance to move down its concentration gradient from where it is more concentrated to where it is less concentrated
the movement of a substance across biological membrane against its concentration gradient, aided by specific transport proteins and requiring input of energy (often as ATP)
cellular "eating"; a type of endocytosis whereby a cell engulfs macromolecules, other cells, or particles into its cytoplasm
cellular "drinking"; a type of endocytosis in which the cell takes fluid and dissolved solutes into small membrane vesicles
Receptors may be built into the membrane and they transmit signals into cells, identification markers identify what the substance is
What is the purpose of receptors and identification markers?
Through exocytosis, moving substances out of the membrance, and endocytosis, taking in substances through the membrane
How does a substance move through the cell membrane?
Receptors send signals and identification markers identify what the substances is, depending on what that substance is will determine if the gate allows it to pass through the membrane
How do gated channels work?