After introduction clause, directly addressing someone, around words that interrupt a sentence/additional info that is not needed, with names and titles, in between direct quotations, and in parts of an address, dates, and places.
1. to separate independent clauses that are not joined by a conjunction such as and or but. Working the night shift is exhausting; working the morning one can be also. 2. To separate independent clauses when one or both of them contains a comma After the needle was in, the nurse planned to add a unit of blood; but she had to go check the patient's blood type first. 3. To separate independent clauses when the second clause begins with a conjunctive adverb such as however, nevertheless, moreover, consequently, or for example.
1. Before a list 2. Before a long quotation 3. After the salutation of a business letter
Remember that the commas and periods stay within the quotations. For example: "Mr. Mark," said Troy, "your test was negative."
Question mark/Exclamation Point
Question mark- Direct question Exclamation Point- Emotional statement
used to set off generally nonessential info.
1. To show possession or ownership 2. to show the plural form of lowercase letters 3. To show where a letter or number has been omitted, during contrations
pronouns hers, theirs, yours, ours and its
have no apostrophe when writing about possession
When compounds appear as adjectives before nouns, use a hyphen to avoid misleading the reader. Therefore, write Reaction-rate measurements argon-ion laser photoelectron-spectrometer design
Capitalizing Every Part of an Experiment, Theory or Design
Capital letters also increase the complexity of writing. Although you must use capital letters for proper nouns and the beginning of sentences, you should use lower case letters whenever possible. Wrong: In our Liquid Sodium Receiver Experiment, a Power Production Phase will follow the Test and Evaluation Phase. Right: In our liquid sodium receiver experiment, a power production phase will follow the test and evaluation phase.
"Which" for "That" and Vice Versa
We will use the IR spectrometer that has the higher wavelength accuracy. (Tells which one.) We will use the FTIR spectrometer, which has a higher wavelength accuracy than a dispersive IR spectrometer. (Adds a fact about the known option.)
Incorrect: The teaching assistant had explicitly warned all the students not to make that particular mistake, however, several students didn't go to the pre-lab discussion so they made the mistake anyway. Correct: The teaching assistant had explicitly warned all the students not to make that particular mistake;however, several students didn't go to the pre-lab discussion so they made the mistake anyway. The teaching assistant had explicitly warned all the students not to make that particular mistake. However, several students didn't go to the pre-lab discussion so they made the mistake anyway.