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CHD3243 Final Ch. 15 (Gonzales-Backen)
Terms in this set (24)
Physical addiction to a drug:
Results because the body builds up a physiological need for the drug, so that its sudden denial results in withdrawal symptoms such as nausea, pain, or even seizures.
Development of a persistent, sometimes overpowering psychological need for a drug, resulting in a compulsion to take it.
A well-established psychological dependency may be more difficult to overcome than one involving physical addiction, especially if someone becomes so dependent on a drug that he or she cannot function without it.
Experimental drug use:
Short-term, investigational trial of one or more drugs.
Motivated primarily by curiosity or by a desire to experience new feelings.
Social-recreational drug use:
Occurs in public settings among friends or acquaintances who wish to share an experience.
Tend to use "softer" drugs such as marijuana.
Circumstantial-situational drug use:
Motivated by the desire to achieve a known and anticipated effect.
5 common psychological conditions may lead to circumstantial-situational use:
1. Depressed mood.
2. Normlessness (not having definite values, opinions, or rules to live by).
3. Social isolation.
5. Low self-esteem.
Intensified drug use:
Generally long-term pattern of using drugs at least once daily to achieve relief from a persistent problem or stressful situation.
Drug use becomes a customary activity of daily life.
Compulsive drug use:
Use at high frequency and high dosage and of relatively long duration; the use produces physiological addiction or psychological dependence, with disuse resulting in physiological discomfort or psychological stress.
Motivation to continue comes from the physical or psychological comfort or relief obtained by using the drug.
Reasons for first drug use:
The overwhelming majority try drugs out of curiosity- to see what they're like.
Other adolescents use drugs as means of rebellion, protest, and expression of dissatisfaction with traditional norms and values.
For fun and sensual pleasure.
Motives for trying drugs include relieve tensions and anxieties, to escape from problems, or to be able to deal with or face those problems.
Family factors in drug use:
Familial factors are the most important risk factors that contribute to substance abuse.
Drug abusers are not as close to their parents and are more likely to have negative adolescent-parental relationships and a low degree of supportive interaction with them than are nonusers.
They're more likely to come from homes in which parents have been divorced.
Parents of drug users are less likely to be authoritative than parents of non-abusers.
Heritability estimates for addiction susceptibility range from 25-60%, depending upon the study and the specific drug.
Relieve tension and pressure; these users are at higher risk of abuse.
To gain self-awareness.
Approach that uses a 12-step model and peer support to help people stop abusing alcohol.
The approach involves group therapy, individual counseling, education, family counseling, homework exercises, and attendance at meetings.
Approach that uses modeling, reinforcement, and situational inducement to alter behavior.
2 techniques used in combination by behavioral therapists: modeling a desired behavior, in which the adolescent then tries acting out that same behavior (role-playing); behavioral contracting involves creating clear, specific agreements between the adolescent and his/her therapist that will be earned by completing those behaviors are acceptable, the rewards and privileges that will be earned by completing those behaviors, and the punishments that will accrue if the behaviors are not completed.
Professional counseling, medical treatment, psychiatric care:
These approaches tend to emphasize a host of emotional disorders as causal factors.
Therefore, treatment is focused on understanding and resolving the emotional problems that underlie drug use, as well as medical treatment to restore health.
Family Systems Therapy:
An approach to helping adolescents in which the emphasis is on enhancing family communication and improving family relations.
Therapeutic Community Treatment:
Treatment in a residential situation with others who have similar problems; includes individual and group therapy and skills training.
Clients are typically expected to live in the facility for at least one year.
Tobacco & Smoking:
Caucasian teens are more likely to smoke than hispanic teens, and members of both groups are more likely to smoke than african american teens.
Rates for boys and girls are similar.
7% of 8th graders and 20% of 12th graders indicated they had smoked during the previous month, a rate 2/3s and nearly 1/2 lower, than students who had reported in the mid-1990s.
Even so, tobacco is the 2nd most widely used drug by youths ages 12-17.
However, disapproval of cigarette smoking has increased: about 80% of all high school students say they do not like to be around smokers and that they have no interest in dating someone who smokes.
Smoking Prevention Programs:
Most of these programs are designed to be implemented by schools, since students form a captive audience and large numbers of teens can be reached.
Peer-led programs are greatly superior to adult-led programs.
Group discussion is a useful strategy.
Programs based primarily upon increasing knowledge about hazards of smoking are ineffective.
Research found it was helpful for schools to have and uphold school wide policy prohibiting tobacco use.
Alcohol abuse is associated with a type of liver damage known as ______________, which is a potentially fatal disease.
Chronic heavy drinking impairs the functioning of?
The immune system; abusers cannot fight off infections, including serious ones such as tuberculosis.
Long-term heavy alcohol use is associated with?
High BP, irregular heartbeat, weakened heart muscle, and stroke.
Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with an elevated rate of _______________ cancer.
Brains of heavy drinkers actually become physically smaller:
Most cell loss occurs in the cortex of the frontal lobe, the part of the brain most involved in higher-order thinking, such as planning and impulse control; in the hippocampus (involved in memory), and in the cerebellum, a part of the brain that helps control balance, coordination, and learning.
Since the adolescent brain is still growing, alcohol exposure alters brain development.
Adolescents who abuse alcohol have been found to have smaller hippocampi, which is linked to memory deficits in adolescents who drink heavily.
Use of alcohol to a degree that causes physical damage; impairs physical, social, intellectual, or occupational functioning; or results in behavior harmful to others.
Dependence on alcohol- drinking compulsively and excessively, leading to functional impairment.
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