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Environmental History

Monroe Doctrine

A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.

Missouri Compromise of 1820

Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36˚ 30' within the Louisiana Territory


Leader of France who sold the Louisiana territory to President Jefferson in 1803.

Louisiana Purchase

The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.

American System

it advocated a strong banking system, protective tariffs and internal improvements

Washington's Farewell Address

Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.

Embargo of 1807

This act issued by Jefferson forbade American trading ships from leaving the U.S. It was meant to force Britain and France to change their policies towards neutral vessels by depriving them of American trade. Ended up hurting US northeastern ports and subsequently forced the creation of domestic industry.

John Marshall

American jurist and politician who served as the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1801-1835) and helped establish the practice of judicial review.

Alexander Hamilton

1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.

George Washington

1st President of the United States, Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.

John Adams

He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself

Thomas Jefferson

3rd President of the United States; chief drafter of the Declaration of Independence; made the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and sent out the Lewis and Clark Expedition to explore it (1743-1826)

Marbury vs. Madison

Case in which the supreme court first asserted the power of Judicial review in finding that the congressional statue expanding the Court's original jurisdiction was unconstitutional

Fletcher vs. Peck

John Marshall ruled against a state legislature that invalidated corrupt land sales in order to protect property rights.

Dartmouth vs. Woodward

1819, Marshall ruled that Dartmouth College's charter that had been granted by King George was to be upheld because it was a contract. Set precedent for protecting businesses from state governments, 1819 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that states could not interfere with private contracts

Alien and Sedition Acts

Laws passed by congress in 1798 that enabled the government to imprison or deport aliens and to prosecute critics of the government, A series of laws that sought to restrict the activities of people who opposed Federalist policies (1798)

James Madison

The author of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, was also the father of the Federalist party and the fourth President of the United States. He was President during the war of 1812 and was also Vice-President under Jefferson. He was a great statesman but was not a strong president.

Tariff of 1789

Tax on imports and all foreign shipping. It was meant to raise money and stimulate the merchant marine rather than to protect any industry; A tax on foreign imports to raise money for the Federal Government and to encourage domestic production

Whiskey Rebellion

a 1794 protest over a tax on all liquor made and sold in the United States, Washington used his powers from the Constitution to put down a rebellion over a tax on whiskey.

Loose vs. Strict interpretation

strict construction of the Constitution; that means, he believed people should follow exactly what was stated and allowed in the document.
a loose construction of the Constitution; that means, he thought you could take whatever action you wanted, as long as the document did not specifically say you couldn't do it.

National Bank

(1791)"Bank of the United States," part of Hamilton's economic plan that provided a safe storage for government funds, serve as an agent for the gov. in the collection, movement and expenditure of tax money and finance new and expanding business enterprises (speeding up national economic growth). It was partly owned by the government and by investors. It's constitutionality was questioned

Samuel Slater

He memorized the way that the British made machines and he brought the idea to America. He made our first cotton spinning machine.

Lowell Mills

19th-century mills for the manufacture of cloth, located in Lowell, Massachusetts, that mainly employed young women.


a Native American that belonged to the Shosone tribe that helped Lewis and Clark on their journey. She translated for them

Meriweather Lewis

Jefferson's personal secretary who accompanied William Clark in 1804 to explore the northern regions of the Lousiana Purchase .

William Clark

A skilled mapmaker and outdoorsman chosen to explore the Louisiana Territory

War of 1812

War between the U.S. and Great Britain which lasted until 1814, ending with the Treaty of Ghent and a renewed sense of American nationalism, A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. Also, a war against Britain gave the U.S. an excuse to seize the British northwest posts and to annex Florida from Britain's ally Spain, and possibly even to seize Canada from Britain. The War Hawks (young westerners led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun) argued for war in Congress. The war involved several sea battles and frontier skirmishes. U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson seized Florida and at one point the British managed to invade and burn Washington, D.C. The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) restored the status quo and required the U.S. to give back Florida. Two weeks later, Andrew Jackson's troops defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.

Treaty of Ghent

Peace treaty signed by Britain and the United states at the end of the War of 1812, : Treaty that ended the War of 1812 and maintained prewar conditions


the assuming of other state's debt from Revolutionary War into one major debt of the federal government. Proposed by Alexander Hamilton. He wanted to create good national credit through raising taxes.

Hamilton's Schemes

Tariff of 1789, First and Second Report on public credit, National Bank

Consequences of Hamilton's Schemes

Whiskey Rebellion, A stronger national government, Political Schism

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