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Unit 1: Political History of the Jewish People and Israel

(the second packet he gave us)
STUDY
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To what period does the term "silent years" refer?
The intertestamental period
When was the intertestamental period?
400BC-4BC (from the end of the Hebrew Bible canon to the beginning of NT history)
Why should we study the Intertestamental period?
In order to understand the historical and cultural background and context of the New Testament
What year did Assyria conquer the Northern Kingdom of Israel?
721/722BC
When was the first Babylonian deportation?
605BC
When was the second Babylonian deportation?
597BC
When was the third Babylonian deportation?
586/587BC
What nation conquered the Northern Kingdom of Israel?
The Assyrian Empire
What nation conquered the Southern Kingdom of Judah?
The Babylonian Empire
What empire conquered the Babylonian Empire?
The Persian Empire
When did the Persians conquer Babylon?
539BC
Who issued the decree that allowed captives to return to their homelands?
Cyrus the Great
Where is Cyrus's decree allowing captives (including Jews) to move back to their homelands mentioned in the Bible?
Ezra 1
When was the first return?
538BC
When was the second return?
457BC
When was the third return?
444BC
Who led the first return from exile?
Zerubbabel
Who led the second return from exile?
Ezra
Who led the third return from exile?
Nehemiah
What was the only nation other than Israel to come back from the dead?
Trick question- there hasn't been any.
Which is more significant: the Babylonian Talmud or the Jerusalem Talmud?
The Babylonian Talmud
What is the "diaspora?"
refers to how the Jews have spread out all over the world
The 2nd Jewish Commonwealth refers to what period?
530BC-70AD (time during which the 2nd temple was in existence)
What is the "Samaritan Schism?"
Jews of "mixed blood" weren't recognized by the Jews as true Israelites, and they built a rival temple.
Where did the Samaritans build their temple?
Mount Gerazim
Where is the Samaritans' temple mentioned in the Bible?
John 4
What is a sage?
a scholar or a scribe
Who interpreted the Torah?
scribes
What term describes the Jewish way of life from the post-exilic period onward?
Judaism (it now had racial AND religious aspects)
Who was Alexander the Great's father?
Phillip, king of Macedonia
When was Alexander the Great born?
356BC
Who was Alexander the Great's teacher?
Aristotle
When did Alexander consolidate the politically divided Greek city-states and assume political leadership of Greece?
336-335BC
What is Hellenization?
the promotion of the Greek way of life, language, and culture
Who defeated the Persian Empire?
Alexander the Great
Alexander's victory at the Granicus River in 334BC gave him control of what area?
Asia Minor
Alexander's victory at Issus in 333BC gave him control of what lands?
Syria, Israel, and Egypt
Alexander's victory at Gaugamela in 331BC gave him control of what?
the heartland of Persia, all the way tot he Indus River
What happened when Alexander the Great died in 323BC?
His kingdom was divided between his generals
The conquests of Alexander the great ushered in what age?
The Hellenistic Age
The Hellenistic Age accelerated the acceptance of what throughout the Mediterranean world?
Greek culture and ideas
What is koine Greek?
the everyday speech of a common Greek
Alexander established cultural centers wherever he went for what purpose?
to Hellenize the people he conquered
How would Hellenization later help the Gospel?
Greek was a common language throughout most of the world, so it was easy to transmit/communicate the Gospel to people, even if they were far away.
Who were the Diadochi?
Alexander the Great's successors
Who made an attempt to reunify Alexander's empire?
Antigonus I
Where was Antigonus I defeated in trying to reunify the empire?
the Battle of Ipsus
Who defeated Antigonus I?
Ptolemy I, Seleucus I, Lysimachus, and Antipater
Over what area did Ptolemy I gain control?
Egypt
Over what area did Seleucus I gain control?
Syria and Mesopotamia
Over what area did Lysimachus gain control?
Thrace
Over what area did Antipater gain control?
Macedonia
Which two of Alexander's successors quickly faded from the scene?
Lysimachus and Antipater
Which two of Alexander's successors continued to fight over control of Israel in several different wars?
Ptolemy and Seleucid
What was the capital of the Ptolemic Empire?
Alexandria, Egypt
From 301BC-198BC, who ruled Israel (up to the city of Tyre)?
Egypt
What kind of policy did the Ptolemies exercise?
A Policy of Toleration
What kind of policy did the Seleucids exercise?
A Policy of Hellenization
What was the capital of the Seleucid Empire?
Antioch
What is the Septuagint?
A Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible developed for the large Jewish population living in Alexandria, Egypt.
Antiochus III defeated Egypt, and Israel came under Seleucid control in what year?
198BC
What two factions developed among the Jews under the Seleucids?
the House of Onias and the House of Tobias
What power did the House of Onias favor?
Egypt
What power did the House of Tobias favor?
Syria
Who was Antiocus Epiphanies?
very corrupt king of the Seleucid Empire who committed the Abomination of Desolation
What was the Abomination of Desolation?
when Antiocus Epiphanies desecrated the Temple in December 167BC by erecting an altar in the Holy of Holies and sacrificing pigs to Zeus
What were Jews who apposed the paganization of their culture called?
the "Hasidim"
When was the Maccabean revolt?
167-164BC
Who was Mattathias?
An old priest from Modein who sparked the Maccabean rebellion by refusing to sacrifice to the Greek gods, killing the Jew who tried to, and attacking the Seleucid messenger who told him to.
What were the Jews fighting for in the Maccabean Revolt?
religious and political freedom
How did the Jews fight in the Maccabean Revolt?
They used guerilla warfare
Who was Judah?
Mattathias's son who took over leadership of the revolt, recaptured (and restored) the Temple in Jerusalem
How did Judah die?
He was assassinated during peace talks with Assyria
Who takes over as leader when Judah dies?
Judah's brother Jonathan
Why was it bad that Jonathan was appointed high priest?
He wasn't a Levite, and he was already the political ruler.
How does Jonathan die?
He's assassinated
Who takes over as leader when Jonathan dies?
Jonathan's brother Simon
Who was the first Hasmonean king who established the Hasmonean Dynasty?
Simon, (Mattathias's son and Jonathan and Judah's brother)
Why was being the king and the high priest a bad thing?
God had commanded Israel not to combine the positions
Where can we find the story of the Maccabean Revolt today?
1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees
When was the Hasmonean Period?
143BC-63BC
Who was Alexandra Salome?
the only Jewish queen of the Intertestamental Period
Why couldn't Alexandra be high priest?
Because she was a woman
Who did Alexandra appoint as high priest?
Her son, Hyrcanus II
Who challenges Hyrcanus II's claim to the throne when Alexandra dies?
His brother, Aristobulus II
In what year does Pompey conquer Jerusalem?
63BC
What does Pompey's conquest of Jerusalem signal?
The end of Jewish independence
Who does Pompey make his puppet ruler?
Hyrcanus II
What happens to Aristoblus II?
He's taken to Rome as a prisoner
What's the miracle of Hannakuh? (typical answer)
oil for one day lasted eight days
What's the miracle of Hannakuh? (Dr. Rabinowitz's answer)
How God helped a little rag-tag group of gys fight off (and beat!) one of the toughest armies around
What are six things the Maccabean Revolt did for the Jewish nation?
rescued them from political/religious destruction, sowed seeds for corruption of high pristesthood, stirred spirit of unity/Jewish nationalism, rekindled Messianic expectations, precipitated development of Sadducees and Pharisees, and renewed domination by a foreign power.