Unit 3 APUSH terms
Dr. Hosmer and Ms. Stuart's 2012-2013 APUSH Unit 3 terms
Terms in this set (38)
The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery. by Henry Clay in 1820
1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. (It was written at a time when many South American nations were gaining independence). Only England, in particular George Canning, supported the Monroe Doctrine. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.
Election of 1824
No one won a majority of electoral votes, so the House of Representatives had to decide among Adams, Jackson, and Clay. Clay dropped out and urged his supporters in the House to throw their votes behind Adams (in exchange for position as secretary of state). Jackson and his followers were furious and accused Adams and Clay of a "corrupt bargain." JQA, Crawford, Clay, and Jackson ran.
Dartmouth College (1819)
case in which the Supreme Court prevented the New Hampshire from changing Dartmouth's charter to make it a public institution; the Court held that the contract clause of the Constitution extended to charters and that contracts could not be invalidated by state law. The case was one of a series of Court decisions that limited states' power and promoted business interests
After the 1824 election, part of the Democratic - Republican party joined John Q. Adams, Clay, and Daniel Webster to oppose Andrew Jackson. They favored nationalistic measures like recharter of the Bank of the United States, high tariffs, and internal improvements at national expense. They were supported mainly by Northwesterners and were not very successful. They were conservatives alarmed by Jackson's radicalness; they joined with the Whigs in the 1830's.
McCulloch v. Maryland
This was a judicial case that involved an attempt by Maryland to destroy a branch of the Bank of the United States by imposing tax on the notes This ended with John Marshall promoting Hamiltonian policy of implied powers and claimed that Maryland had no right to tax the bank. This was a blow to state rights and an increase in power of loose interpretation.
a league of European nations formed by the leaders of Russia, Austria, and Prussia after the Congress of Vienna; in it, they pledged to base their relations with other nations on Christian principles in order to combat the forces of revolution
Gibbons v. Odgen
(1824) The issue in this case was whether or not the state of New York could grant a monopoly to Robert Fulton's steamboat company to operate an exclusive service between New York and New Jersey. Aaron Odgen had secured his license from Fulton's company, while Thomas Gibbons had secured a competing license from the U.S. government. The Court argued that Gibbons could not be kept from competing because New York did not have the power to grant this particular monopoly due to the commerce clause in the Constitution that gave the federal government the power to regulate interstate commmerce, which the Court defined thru this case. This case proved the "interstate commerce" was a source of power for the national government as long as Congress sought to improve commerce through subsidies, services, and land grants. This case also enforced the nationalistic interpretation of the Constitution that reigned during this time
Marbury v. Madison
A landmark case in United States law and the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the United States, under Article Three of the United States Constitution. The case resulted from a petition to the Supreme Court by William Marbury, who had been appointed as Justice of the Peace in the District of Columbia by President John Adams shortly before leaving office, but whose commission was not delivered as required by John Marshall, Adams's Secretary of State. When Thomas Jefferson assumed office, he ordered the new Secretary of State, James Madison, to withhold Marbury's and several other men's commissions. Marbury and three others petitioned the Court to force Madison to deliver the commission to Marbury. The Supreme Court denied Marbury's petition, holding that the statute upon which he based his claim was unconstitutional.
Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.
Fletcher v. Peck
(1810) the Supreme Court struck down a state law as unconstitutional. In the Yazoo Land Fraud Georgia claimed a bunch of land from the Louisiana Purchase that it had no right to claim. Georgia then sold the land to speculators who sold it to farmers. The Federal government stepped in and takes back the land and tells Georgia to give back the money but the money will just end up with the speculators and not the farmers. The Federal government says that the farmers must be paid. This was asserting federal power over state power.
American Colonization Society
1817- est. by people worried of the impact of slavery and race on society. They argued slavery had to end, and americans had to send black slaves back to Africa. Was a failure of a plan. Few planters freed their slaves, some blacks didn't want to leave even. America even bought land in africa, liberia, to place the slaves. Only six thousand slaves were transported. West coast of africa.
He was a British mechanic that moved to America and in 1791 invented the first American machine for spinning cotton. He is known as "the Father of the Factory System" and he started the idea of child labor in America's factories.
A mechanical genius who invented the cotton gin, which was machine that separated the cotton from the seed. This greatly improved efficiency, and the South was able to clear more acres of cotton fields, which also increased the demand for slaves.
Francis Cabot Lowell
Boston merchant who had an idea to combine spinning and weaving under one roof. He formed the Boston Associates. They built a textile mill in Massachusetts. Had all machines needed to turn raw cotton into cloth
Old National Road
(cumberland road) First of the internal improvements provided by congress in 1806 to help the colonization of the west. A toll bill linked to the road was vetoed by Monroe.
It is a canal in New York State, United States, that runs from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean It cut transport costs into what was then wilderness by about 90%. The Canal resulted in a massive population surge in western New York, and opened regions further west to increased settlement.
They were a group of Boston families who joined to form one of the earliest and most powerful joint-capital ventures. They eventually came to dominate the textile industry, the railroad, insurance, and banking business' in all of Massachusetts. With Pride the Boston Associates considered their textile mill in Lowell, Massachusetts a showplace factory. The labor there was mostly New England farm girls who were supervised on and off the job and worked from "dark to dark."( made cloth so cheap, women started to buy it instead of make it.
the system put into practice in China beginning in the early 1980s in which the major decisions about agricultural production are made by individual farm families based on the profit motive rather than by a people's commune or the government
Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793. It removed seeds from cotton fibers. Now cotton could be processed quickly and cheaply. Results: more cotton is grown and more slaves are needed for more acres of cotton fields
Expression used by Southern authors and orators before the Civil War to indicate the economic dominance of the Southern cotton industry, and that the North needed the South's cotton. In a speech to the Senate in 1858, James Hammond declared, "You daren't make war against cotton! ...Cotton is king!".
Alexis de Tocqueville
Came from France to America in 1831, observed democracy in government and society. His book discusses the advantages and disadvantages of democracy and consequences of the majority's unlimited power. First to raise topics of American practicality over theory, the industrial aristocracy, and the conflict between the masses and individuals.
This term describes the spirit of the age led by Andrew Jackson. During this period, more offices became elective, voter restrictions were reduced or eliminated, and popular participation in politics increased. The Democratic Party, led by Jackson appealed to the new body of voters by stressing the belief in rotation in office, economy in government, governmental response to popular demands and decentralization of power.
Tariff of Abominations
The bill favored western agricultural interests by raising tariffs or import taxes on imported hemp, wool, fur, flax, and liquor, thus favoring Northern manufacturers. In the South, these tariffs raised the cost of manufactured goods, thus angering them and causing more sectionalist feelings.
Election of 1828
won by Jackson, Whig party emerges (conservative) Major issues are democrats versus whigs required involvement in major issues- slavery was kept off the table, wanted to dismantle the National Bank which would mean that there was a huge issue.
The South Carolina Exposition and Protest
It became a formal proposal against the tariff secretly written by John C. Calhoun. The protests attempted to rally other states to their cause and to deem it as unconstitutional and to give them the right to nullify it. The rallying of the southern states together against Washington was an increasing theme leading to thee Civil War.
Ordinance of Nullification
South Carolina declared the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 null and void and forbade the collection of those duties. In February, 1833, they threatened secession if federal bureaucrats tried to collect them.
Webster- Haynes Debate
debate in 1830 was over an 1830 bill by Samuel A. Foote to limit the sale of public lands in the west to new settlers. Daniel Webster, in a dramatic speech, showed the danger of the states' rights doctrine, which permitted each state to decide for itself which laws were unconstitutional, claiming it would lead to civil war. States' rights (South) vs. nationalism (North).
Worcester v. Georgia
1832 Marshall determined that Cherokees were a sovereign nation under U.S. Treaty, and Georgia could not interfere, Andrew Jackson: "John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it."
President of the Second Bank of the United States; he struggled to keep the bank functioning when President Jackson tried to destroy it.
erupted in 1832 when Daniel Webster and Henry Clay presented Congress with a bill to renew the Bank's charter. Clay pushed to renew the charter in 1832 to make it an issue for the election of that year. He felt that if Jackson signed off on it, then Jackson would alienate the people of the West who hated the Bank. If Jackson vetoed it, then he would alienate the wealthy class of the East who supported the Bank. Clay did not account for the fact that the wealthy class was now a minority. Jackson vetoed the bill calling the Bank unconstitutional. Withdrew gov't money and put them into "pet banks", killing the bank.
issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
Second Party System
1830's fell fledged 2 party system emerged. WHIGS= anti-jackson DEMOCRATS=jackson's followers and former Democratic Republicans.
In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4,000 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
1830 - The Maysville Road Bill proposed building a road in Kentucky (Clay's state) at federal expense. Jackson vetoed it because he didn't like Clay, and Martin Van Buren pointed out that New York and Pennsylvania paid for their transportation improvements with state money. Applied strict interpretation of the Constitution by saying that the federal government could not pay for internal improvements. Said that the Maysville Road would only benefit one state.
Judiciary Acts of 1789 and 1801
1789: Established the Federal Court System of the U.S.
1801: Created sixteen new federal judges and other judicial offices. It was Adams's last attempt to keep Federalists power in the new Republican Congress before Jefferson took office. His goal was for federalists to dominate the judicial branch of government.
The Venerated Plow
Industry will be minimal but agriculture was and is still the back-bone to the nations survival. It was to respect those who work and cultivate the land and give us our daily bread.
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