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History Midterm Studyguide
Terms in this set (15)
Chapter 2: The expansion and fall of Rome + it's legacy
What factors supported the rise of Rome?
1) the location of Rome was very good since it was next to the Tiber river which provided transportation and good trade
2) the Appenines (mountains) provided protection
3) the good climate
4) the organized gov.
5) the superior army: it was able to conquer surrounding lands and managed to rule over 2 million square miles.
6) Christianity within Rome: the religion was more widely excepted than pagan
What factors supported the fall of Rome? (part 1)
The seven internal weaknesses...
1) heavy taxation: the increase in taxation made it harder for the people of rome to sustain life there.
2) lack of education: those without education weren't raised well so that they could do well in their jobs. Work was not done properly
3) distribution of news: news was difficult to get to everyone through rome
4) decline in agriculture: less food from agriculture and less space to grow means hungry people and trade to get larger and cost more
5) growth of slavery (decline in technology): with more slaves, the people of rome didn't even try to evolve their ways, instead they used slaves. This slowed down the evolution process and rome soon fell behind the other empires in power
6) military disloyalty: the military was disloyal and rome needed the military to be loyal. If military began to follow another leader, the military would be weakened and attacks on Rome were likely to happen.
7) public and government corruption: the corruption of the public from raised taxes and lack of education made it very difficult to pay the government. The government began to decline and rome began to lose it's wealth
What factors supported the fall of Rome? (part 2)
1) External Invasions
Clovis and the Franks attacked the most frequently weakening the military.
2) the size of the empire got to large because it's wealth attracted more people,but this meant higher taxes needed to provide houses for the people and the decline of Rome.
What is the Legace of Rome?
- Art= mosaics
- philosophy= Stoicism( focuses on virtue, duty, and endurance
- Language= Latin
- Architecture and Engineering= vaults, domes, aqueducts and arches
- Roman laws and government ways (their way of organization)
Chapter 3: The beginnings of Islam
Geography (part 1)
-very little rainfall
- crossroad of 3 continents: Africa, Asia, Europe
Geography= how did it affect the development of early Islam? (part 2)
since the geography was at a crossroad of three continents, it made spreading the word of Muhammad easier and faster since trade and cultural exchange could be easily followed through here. the Islamic way could be spread throughout all three continents. Also, Kings would use the Islamic language, Arabic for laws, rules and punishments.
Government= how did it affect the development of early Islam?
Government helped Islam to spread because 1) kings started to convert and that influenced the people to convert 2) the government started using some of the Islamic ways of order and justice and punishment for their own rules and this helped make Islam well known to other kingdoms and empires and people
Belief Systems= how did they affect the development of early Islam?
Toleration and the five pillars of Islam were huge in the development of Islam. As muslims began to dedicate their lives to the five pillars they spread the customes to others and others began to use these belief systems and dedicate their lives. Once people dedicated their entire lives to the belief systems, they influenced others to do the same and become devoted muslims too.
Chapter 5: West Africa
How did trade bring religious development to West Africa?
When caravans of travelers and traders would travel and trade, cultures would be exchanged along the way and different cultures would combine and be passed along to generations. This helped to spread different cultures, belief systems, ideas, and original religions. The East, South, and North would trade. Also, the Berbers would come through to trade and spread Islam in this way.
How did trade bring cultural development to West Africa?
Along with religions, cultures were also exchanged through trade. Certain ways of doing things (praying, what you wear for clothing, the foods you eat,...) were exchanged. This became the start of cultural exchanges.
What are a few examples of religious exchanges?
- Berbers coming through and spreading the religion of Islam
-Kings converting to Islam
What are a few examples of cultural exchanges?
- Arabic being used for govt., laws, and record keeping
- Berbers sharing the ways and the cultures of Islam
- Islamic ethics being used for govt. (right and wrong)
- Islamic law for govt. (women can inherit property)
- Islam merging with religion and cultural beliefs
Chapter 6: Central and Southern Africa
Why was gold sooooooooo important?
Gold was sooooooooo important because it allowed empires to expand and grow and become powerful because it was one of the most important items traded along with salt. Gold allowed trade to grow large in certain areas.
How did gold help kingdoms to develop in West Africa?
Gold allowed kingdoms to grow since it gave them power to build loyal military by paying the military for loyalty. This allowed kingdoms to attract the attention of other kingdoms and build strong trade systems.
Example of kingdoms that used these advantages...
Great Zimbabwe, Kongo
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