Science 8 MidTerm 2012
what is science?
science is a way of learing about the natural world and the things you learn about nature
what are 3 skills scientists use to learn more about the world?
what is observing?
observing is using one or more senses to gather information
the senses scientists use in observing include _____, ______, _______, _______, and ______.
sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell
______________ refers to the many ways in which scientists study the natural world and propose expanations based on evidence they gather.
a _____ is a possiblbe explanation for a set of observations or an answer to a scientific question.
to test a hypothesis a scientist designs an _______.
the facts and figures and other evidence gathered through observations are called ____.
a ______ is a summary of what you have learned from an experiment.
name the steps of scientific inquiry:
1. pose a question
2. form a hypothesis
3. design an experiment
4. collect data
5. draw conclusion
how is the scientific law different from the scientific theory?
the law is what scientists expect to happen and the theory is what they observe.
a _________ is an experiment that explains your observations.
a _________ is what the scientists expect to happen under certain conditions.
the 4 spheres that make up earth's structure are:
the body of knowlege that deals with earth and its place in the universe is called _____.
a ____ is someone who studies the solid earth.
an ____________ is someone who studies the earths oceans.
a ________ is someone who studies the weather and the atmosphere.
an ________ is somene who studies the solar system, stars, and galaxies.
an _________________ is someone who studies earths environment and resorces
An ________ studies the hydrosphere.
What is technology?
technology is how people change the worls to meet human needs.
what is the goal of technology?
to improve the way people live
name 6 different types of technology and give an example.
communication; cell phone
Know the safety symbols!!!!!!!
refer to book or notebook
what should you do if something is unclear to you about the lab before you begin/
ask the teacher to make things more clear so you can make sure you understand everything.
What is the most important safety rule when performing a lab?
ALWAYS FOLLOW THE TEACHERS DIRECTIONS!
height above sea level
difference in elevation
feature type of topography
what are the three common map projections?
a flat model of all or part of earth is a ___.
a sphere that represents earths entire surfaceas seen from space is a _____.
relates distance on a map to distance on earths surface
stands for a feature on earths surface
lists and explains all the symbols on a map
The units scientists use to measure distances around a circle are ______.
The imaginary line that circles earth halfway between the North and South pole is the _____________.
half of the earth is called a _______.
what is map projection?
a map projection is a frame work of lines that help transferring points on earths surface
on a _______ map the latitude and the longitude are both straight. no distortion
on an _________ map the edges are rounded and the latitude lines are straight but the longitues lines are curved.
a ____ map has little distortion and the longitude lines are straight and the latitude lines are curved.
a map that shows the surface features of an area is called a __________ map.
every 5th counter line or ________ is usually darker and heavier that the other contour lines.
How close the contour lines are is an indication of an areas ________.
the property of splitting EVENLY along flat surfaces
the color of a minerals powder
how a mineral reflects light from its surface
how a mineral breaks apart when it DOES NOT SPLIT EVENLY.
a ranking of mierals from softest to hardest
mohs hardness scale
the repeating pattern of a minerals prticles in a solid
a substance composed of a single kind of atom
What properties does something have to have to be considered a mineral?
becasue minerals are formed by a process that occur in the natural world, they are said to be _____________.
because minerals dont come from living things they are said to be ____
a substance that keeps its shape becasue its particles annot flow freely is a ___.
a solid with flat sides that meet at sharp edges and corners is called a ________.
the process by which atoms are arranged to form a material with a crystal structure is referred to as _________.
What 2 ways do minerals form?
crystallization of molten materials or by crystalization of disssolved materials in water.
what affects the size of crystals fromed from magama?
Why does magama that cools deep below the surface have large crystals?
Its remains below the surface where it is hotter and undisturbed for many years
lava cools quickly and forms minerals with __ crystals.
name a few uses of minerals:
Any hard, colorful mineral that has a brilliant or glassy luster is called a _______.
a gemstone that has cut and polished is called a ___.
anyone who searches for an ore deposit is called a ___________.
eath moving equitment scrapes away soil to expose oil
use giant earth moving equiptment to dig a tremendous pit and remove ore deposits
open pit mining
often have a network of tunnels that extend deep into the ground following the veins of the ore
igneous rocks are classified by ___,___, and ___.
___ rocks form from minerals, magama, or lava and contain crystals.
extursive rocks form from ____.
intrusive rocks form from _______.
intrusive and extrusive rocks are both _____ rocks.
skeletons of living coral grow together to form a stucture called a ________.
_____ form in tropical oceans and form their skeletons by obsorbing calcite.
metamorphic rock igneous rock
what forces move rocks and sediments through the rock cycle?
erosion, deposition, melting, heat, and pressure
The series of processes that slowyly change rocks from one kind to another is referred to as the ______.
list 3 major groups of rocks:
list the 2 forces that can change rocks into metamorphic rocks:
small, solid pieces of materials that come from rocks or living things are called _____.
three forces that can carry sediments:
how does the temperature change as you go from teh surface of earth towards the center?
the deeper you go the hotter it gets
how does pressure change as you travel towards the center of earth?
the deeper you go, the greater the pressure
3 main layers that make up the earth are __,___,and ___.
the ___ is a layer of rock that forms earths outer skin.
the outer core is ____.
the inner core is ____.
State alfred wegners hypothesis about how the earths continents have moved.
all the continents were once joined together in a single landmass and have since drifted apart
wegner named his supercontinent _______.
wegners idea that the continents slowly moved over earths surface became known as _____________.
explain who wegner is
what is a scientific theory?
well tested concept that explains a wide range of observations
magma erupts along a __________.
mid ocean ridge
magma cools to form new ____________
the sea floor speads away from the ____________.
mid ocean ridge
the proccess that continually adds new materials to the ocean floor is called
sea floor spreading.
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