99 terms

Science 8 MidTerm 2012

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Terms in this set (...)

what is science?
science is a way of learing about the natural world and the things you learn about nature
what are 3 skills scientists use to learn more about the world?
observing
infering
predicting
what is observing?
observing is using one or more senses to gather information
the senses scientists use in observing include _____, ______, _______, _______, and ______.
sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell
______________ refers to the many ways in which scientists study the natural world and propose expanations based on evidence they gather.
scientific inquuiry
a _____ is a possiblbe explanation for a set of observations or an answer to a scientific question.
hypothesis
to test a hypothesis a scientist designs an _______.
experiment
the facts and figures and other evidence gathered through observations are called ____.
data
a ______ is a summary of what you have learned from an experiment.
conclusion
name the steps of scientific inquiry:
___
___
___
___
___
___
1. pose a question
2. form a hypothesis
3. design an experiment
4. collect data
5. draw conclusion
6. communicate
how is the scientific law different from the scientific theory?
the law is what scientists expect to happen and the theory is what they observe.
a _________ is an experiment that explains your observations.
scientific theory
a _________ is what the scientists expect to happen under certain conditions.
scientific law
the 4 spheres that make up earth's structure are:
___
___
___
___
hydrosphere
lithosphere
atmosphere
biosphere
the body of knowlege that deals with earth and its place in the universe is called _____.
earth science
a ____ is someone who studies the solid earth.
geologist
an ____________ is someone who studies the earths oceans.
oceanographer
a ________ is someone who studies the weather and the atmosphere.
meteorologist
an ________ is somene who studies the solar system, stars, and galaxies.
astronomer
an _________________ is someone who studies earths environment and resorces
environmental scientist
An ________ studies the hydrosphere.
oceanographer
What is technology?
technology is how people change the worls to meet human needs.
what is the goal of technology?
to improve the way people live
name 6 different types of technology and give an example.
communication; cell phone
manufactoring; tent
chemical; make-up
energy/power; lantern
construction; highways
transportation; cars
Know the safety symbols!!!!!!!
refer to book or notebook
what should you do if something is unclear to you about the lab before you begin/
ask the teacher to make things more clear so you can make sure you understand everything.
What is the most important safety rule when performing a lab?
ALWAYS FOLLOW THE TEACHERS DIRECTIONS!
height above sea level
elevation
difference in elevation
relief
feature type of topography
landform
what are the three common map projections?
mercator
conic
equal area
a flat model of all or part of earth is a ___.
map
a sphere that represents earths entire surfaceas seen from space is a _____.
globe
relates distance on a map to distance on earths surface
scale
stands for a feature on earths surface
symbol
lists and explains all the symbols on a map
key
The units scientists use to measure distances around a circle are ______.
degrees
The imaginary line that circles earth halfway between the North and South pole is the _____________.
PRIME MERIDEAN
half of the earth is called a _______.
hymosphere
what is map projection?
a map projection is a frame work of lines that help transferring points on earths surface
on a _______ map the latitude and the longitude are both straight. no distortion
mercator
on an _________ map the edges are rounded and the latitude lines are straight but the longitues lines are curved.
equal area
a ____ map has little distortion and the longitude lines are straight and the latitude lines are curved.
conic
a map that shows the surface features of an area is called a __________ map.
topographic
every 5th counter line or ________ is usually darker and heavier that the other contour lines.
index contour
How close the contour lines are is an indication of an areas ________.
Slope
the property of splitting EVENLY along flat surfaces
cleavage
the color of a minerals powder
streak
how a mineral reflects light from its surface
luster
how a mineral breaks apart when it DOES NOT SPLIT EVENLY.
Fracture
a ranking of mierals from softest to hardest
mohs hardness scale
the repeating pattern of a minerals prticles in a solid
crystal
a substance composed of a single kind of atom
element
What properties does something have to have to be considered a mineral?
naturally occuring
inorganic
solid
crystal struture
chemical composition
becasue minerals are formed by a process that occur in the natural world, they are said to be _____________.
naturally occuring
because minerals dont come from living things they are said to be ____
inorganic
a substance that keeps its shape becasue its particles annot flow freely is a ___.
Solid
a solid with flat sides that meet at sharp edges and corners is called a ________.
crystal structure
the process by which atoms are arranged to form a material with a crystal structure is referred to as _________.
crystallization
What 2 ways do minerals form?
crystallization of molten materials or by crystalization of disssolved materials in water.
what affects the size of crystals fromed from magama?
the temperature
Why does magama that cools deep below the surface have large crystals?
Its remains below the surface where it is hotter and undisturbed for many years
lava cools quickly and forms minerals with __ crystals.
small
name a few uses of minerals:
jewllery
electornic devices
decorations
make-up
Any hard, colorful mineral that has a brilliant or glassy luster is called a _______.
gemstone
a gemstone that has cut and polished is called a ___.
gem
anyone who searches for an ore deposit is called a ___________.
prospector
eath moving equitment scrapes away soil to expose oil
strip minning
use giant earth moving equiptment to dig a tremendous pit and remove ore deposits
open pit mining
often have a network of tunnels that extend deep into the ground following the veins of the ore
shaft mines
igneous rocks are classified by ___,___, and ___.
origin
texture
and composition
___ rocks form from minerals, magama, or lava and contain crystals.
igneous
extursive rocks form from ____.
lava
intrusive rocks form from _______.
magma
intrusive and extrusive rocks are both _____ rocks.
igneous
skeletons of living coral grow together to form a stucture called a ________.
coral reef
_____ form in tropical oceans and form their skeletons by obsorbing calcite.
coral reefs
ROCK CYCLE:
magma

metamorphic rock igneous rock

sedimentary rock
...
what forces move rocks and sediments through the rock cycle?
erosion, deposition, melting, heat, and pressure
The series of processes that slowyly change rocks from one kind to another is referred to as the ______.
rock cycle
list 3 major groups of rocks:
igneous
sedimentary
metamorphic
list the 2 forces that can change rocks into metamorphic rocks:
heat
pressure
small, solid pieces of materials that come from rocks or living things are called _____.
sediment
three forces that can carry sediments:
1
2
3
running water
wind
ice
how does the temperature change as you go from teh surface of earth towards the center?
the deeper you go the hotter it gets
how does pressure change as you travel towards the center of earth?
the deeper you go, the greater the pressure
3 main layers that make up the earth are __,___,and ___.
crust
core
mantle
the ___ is a layer of rock that forms earths outer skin.
crust
the outer core is ____.
liquid
the inner core is ____.
solid
State alfred wegners hypothesis about how the earths continents have moved.
all the continents were once joined together in a single landmass and have since drifted apart
wegner named his supercontinent _______.
pangea
wegners idea that the continents slowly moved over earths surface became known as _____________.
continantal drift
explain who wegner is
...
what is a scientific theory?
well tested concept that explains a wide range of observations
magma erupts along a __________.
mid ocean ridge
magma cools to form new ____________
sea floor
the sea floor speads away from the ____________.
mid ocean ridge
the proccess that continually adds new materials to the ocean floor is called
______________.
sea floor spreading.