APUSH Brinkley Chapter 14
Terms in this set (31)
Militant leaders of S-champions of new concept of "Southern Nationalism," men known bot to their contemporaries &history as "fire eaters"-began to deman end to Union so seceded (w/drew state from Union). SC was 1st (hotbed of S separatism), then Miss, FL, AL, GA, LA & TX by time Lincoln is Pres. Union said states had no right to secede, couldnt stop it
Confederate States of America
Feb 1861-reps from 7seceded states met in Montgomery, AL &fromed Confederacy. Jefferson Davis=President, & Montgomery=capital. They seized the fed property w/in boundaries immediately. Didn't have sufficient military poewr to capture Fort Sumter &Fort Pickens
Sen John J Crittenden of KY proposed comp to stick Union back together. Called for several constitutional amendments, which would guarantee the permanent existence of slavery in slave states &would satisfy S demands on issues like fugitive slaves &slaves in DC. Heart of plan=proposal to reestablish MO comp line in all present&future territory. S Repubs not accepted b/c slavery not able to expand
Abe believed if surrendered Sumter, his commitment to maintaining the Union wouldn't be credible. Abe told them wouldn;t send troops or munitions unless met w/resistance. Confed sent PGT Beauregard to take the island by force if necessary. Anderson refused to surrender, Confeds bombarded it 04 12-13,1861. April 14-Anderson surrendered; this marked beginning of war.
Permitted any citizen or prospective citizen to claim 160 acres of public land &purchase it for a small fee after living on it for 5 yrs; passed in 1862.
Morrill Land Grant Act
Passed in 1862. It transferred substantial public acreage to the state govs, which were to sell the land &use the proceeds to finance pub ed. Led to the creation of many new state colleges &universities: called land-grant institutions
National Banks Act
1863-1864, created new national banking system. Existing or newly formed banks could join the sstem if they had enough capital &were willing to invest 1/3 of it in gov securities. In return they could issue US Treasury notes as currency. Eliminated much of the chaos &uncertainty in nation's currency &created a uniform system of national bank notes
Union Pacific Railroad Company
A chartered RR corporation (part of transcontinental RR) which was to be built westward from Omaha, and to be connected with the Central Pacific in the middle and complete the link. The gov provided free public lands and generous loans to company
Central Pacific Railroad Company
A chartered RR corporation (part of transcontinental RR) which was to be built eastward from California, and to be connected with the Central Pacific in the middle and complete the link. The gov provided free public lands and generous loans to company
Gov issued paper currency to finance the war. The new system was not backed by gold or silver, but simply by the good faith &credit of the gov (like today's currency). Value flunctuated according to the fortunes of the Northern armies. B/c of difficulty of making purchases w/this uncertain currency, gov used greenbacks sparingly
National Draft Law
B/c of decline in enlistments, Congress passed national draft law in March 1863. Virtually all young adult males were eligible to be drafted; but a man could escape service by hiring someone to go in his place or by paying the gov a fee of $300
New York City Draft Riots
Opposition to law was widespread, esp among laborers, immigrants, &Dems opposing war. Demonstrators against draft rioted in NYC for 4days in July 1863, after 1st names were selected for conscription. Over 100 died; Irish workers=center of violence. Angry b/c black strikebreakers used against them in recent strike; blamed blacks for war. Rioters lynched blacks, burned hoomes &businesses (mainly blacks), &destroyed black children orphanage
The right of an arrested person to a speedy trial. Lincoln suspended this right and at first, only in sensitive areas such as the border states. 1862, said all persons who discouraged enlistments or engaged in disloyal practices were subject to martial law
Union Democrats that opposed to the war; were also known as "Peace Democrats" or "Copperheads" by their enemies
Election of 1864
Union Party nominated Lincoln for another term, &Andrew Johnson of TN (War Dem who opposed TN's decision to secede), Dems nominated George B McClellan (former Union Gen that wanted peace). If it was not for capture of Atlanta, many N victories, rejuvenated N morale &boosted Repub prospects, Lincoln wouldn't have won
Declared that all slaves used for "insurrectionary" purposes (that is, in support of the Confed military effort) would be considered freed; passed in 1861. Subsequent laws in spring of 1862 abolished slavery in DC &in W territories, & compensated owners. 2nd Act-declared free the slaves of persons aiding &supporting the insurrection (whether or not slaves themselves were doing so) &authorized the pres to employ blacks, including freed slaves, as soldiers
Signed Jan 1, 1863 which declared forever free slaves in all areas of the Confed except those already under Union control (TN, western VA, & S LA). This did not apply to border slave states which had never seceded &weren't subject to the pres's war powers. This clearly established that teh war was being fought not only to preserve Union but also end slavery
U.S. Sanitary Commission
An organization of civilian volutneers led by Dorothea Dix, mobilized large numbers of female nurses to serve in field hospitals. Also funneled meds &supplies to badly overtaxed field hospitals &spread ideas about the importance of sanitary conditions in hospitals &clinics &contributed to the relative decline of death by disease in Civil War
General George McClellan
Lincoln appointed him chief of staff; previously commander of Union armies in E, the Army of the Potomac. Had a inadeaquate grasp of strategy &returned to the field in March 1862 (no longer chief of staff)
General Ulysses S. Grant
Chief of staff for Union &shared Lincoln's belief in making enemy armies &resources, not enemy territory, the target of military efforts. War effort faced constant scrutiny from the Committee on the Conduct of the War
General Robert E. Lee
Early 1862, Davis named principal military adviser, but Davis had no intention of sharing control of strategy w/ anyone, so Lee commanded forces in field, &Davis planned strategy alone. Named General in Chief in Feb 1865, but still made the basic decisions.
Constructed by plating w/ iron a former US frigate, the Merrimac, which the Yankees had scuttled in Norfolk harbor when VA seceded. Renamed VA, left Norfolk to attack a blockading squadron of wooden ships at Hampton Rds. Union had the Monitor ironclad; 1st battle b/w ironclads. Monitor put end to VA's raids &preserved blockade
King Cotton Diplomacy
Southern leaders hoped to counter the strength of the Brit anitslavery forces by arguing that access to S cotton was vital to the English &French textile industries. But was a failure b/c English manufacurers had a surplus of raw cotton &finished goods on hand in 1861 &could w/stand temp. loss to access of US cotton; when supply decreased, still had Egypt &India
Samuel Colt had patented a repeating pistol (revolver) in 1835, but more important for military purposes was the repeating rifle, introduced by Oliver Winchester in 1860. Also important were greatly imporved cannons and artillery, a result of advances in iron &steel tech of previous decades.
Sept 17-bloodiest single day engagement of the war. McClellann's 87,000 army repeatedly attacked Lee's 50,000 with enormous casualties on both sides. 6,000 died, 17,000 sustained injuries. Just as Confed line seem to break, the last of Jackson's troops arrived from Harpers Ferry to reinforce it. Instead of making one more assault, he allowed Lee to retreat into VA. Union Victory, but opportunitu=squandered
Lee was moving to attack Pennsylvania when he was met by Hooker &Meade, were on July 1-3 1863 they fought. Meade's army protected S of town, Lee attacked, though greatly outnumbered. 1st assault- on Cemetery Ridge failed, next day, organized Pickett's charge (remaining men from it surrendered or retreated once they got to Union). Lee lost 1/3 of army and surrendered July 4.
March to the Sea
Sherman first captured Atlanta on June 27. When Sherman left Atlanta, he destroyed anything that would be useful to the Confeds; army cut a 60-mile wide swath of desolation across GA, destroying everything in its path (towns &plantations). By Dec 20, reached Savannah which surrendered 2days later (offered it to Lincoln as Christmas gift)
On April 9, 1865, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered his approximately 28,000 troops to Union General Ulysses S. Grant in Appomattox Court House, Virginia,
First Battle of Bull Run
In the first major land battle of the Civil War, a large Union force under General Irvin McDowell is routed by a Confederate army under General Pierre G.T. Beauregard.
Ulysses S. Grant's armies converged on Vicksburg, investing the city and entrapping a Confederate army under Lt. Gen. John Pemberton. On July 4, Vicksburg surrendered
a General in the Union Army during the American Civil War where he received recognition for his outstanding command of military strategy as well as criticism for the harshness of the "scorched earth" policies that he implemented in conducting total war against the Confederate States.