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Lecture 15: Challenges to Bipolar World in the 1960s
Terms in this set (14)
France's Quest for Independence and grandeur: Algeria
-Algeria = France's largest and oldest possession
-Was home to about a mill. French
-Was like an "overseas state almost"
-National Liberation Front (FLN) increased in 1954 and French government decided it was time to send conscripts to fight in foreign war for the first time.
-By 1956 about 500,000 French were stationed in Algeria to combat FLN terrorism.
When word reaches Algeria that the French gov was considering negotiations with National Liberation Front they felt very mad and let down.
The army therefore revolted overthrew the civilian administration.
Charles de Gaulle
Summoned from retirement to deal with Algeria and civil war at home.
Charles de Gaulle in Algeria
Many French felt betrayed by de Gaulle when he opened secret neogations and eventually granted Algeria independence in 1962.
Charles de Gaulle overall leadership
Emerged as a strong leader, and wanted to be more focused on improving conditions at home and boosting France within Europe:
-Increased executive powers
-Assertivness on foreign policy
France demands equal:
power in Nato. (Charles de Gaulle, 1958)
(1966) President Charles de Gaulle infuriated the United States when he suddenly pulled France out of NATO's military command in 1966, arguing he had to preserve French independence in world affairs.
(2009) France rejoins NATO.
France joins the
nuclear club 1960.
Paris Spring (1968)
The volatile period of civil unrest in France during May 1968 was punctuated by demonstrations and massive general strikes as well as the occupation of universities and factories across France. At the height of its fervor, it brought the entire economy of France to a virtual halt.
De Gaulle left office in 1969 even though his party was chosen to be re-elected, he was seen as "old"
The Soviet-Romanian Rift Post-1963 Cold War [in] Eastern Europe
o Region had been loyal to the USSR, but the leaders were hand-picked by the Communist leadership
o Romania started pushing the USSR to make troops leave their country
o Red Troops were withdrawn from Romania by 1958
o From then on, Romania tried to extract itself from USSR power
Gheorghiu-Dej & Nicolae Ceausescu
o Romania was trying to become another Yugoslavia
o Ceausescu strong, powerful, and effective
o Wanted to be like Tito and secure his/his country's own freedom
The Brezhnev Doctrine, November 1968
o In response to what was going on in the European countries The Soviet Union reserved the right to intervene to restore socialism wherever Moscow deemed socialism to be under threat
o Brezhnev got all the Warsaw Pact countries to support this
---Except for Romania
---Expected the Soviets to intervene in their country?
How did Romania get out of the The Brezhnev Doctrine:
- Romania, the PRC, and the Brezhnev Doctrine
o The Romanian ambassador to China got political support from China
o According to China, any Soviet intervention in Romania would lead to a Sino-Soviet war
Alexander Dubcek and the Prague Spring
o Came to power in 1968 with an increasingly reformist agenda
o Considered himself a nationalist, even though Czech was a part of the USSR
o Reformist: "Socialism with a human face", Political liberalization, Economic liberalization
o Massive popular support at home for reforms
o Dubcek wouldn't stand down with the enormous push from students/teachers in support of his reforms - but this change started from the top (unlike a lot of the other change going on the world)
Moscow Reacts to the Prague Spring
o Wasn't willing to allow reform and new leadership wasn't okay with it
o Public, dramatic, violent
o Soviet tanks invaded Prague
o The USSR's actions were deemed unacceptable by international standards