AP World History Final Review
Terms in this set (54)
The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers were the life blood of the Fertile Crescent. Explain why early civilations choose these River Valleys to settle
Rivers provided water for crops, as well as the easiest form of transportation. All four river valleys of the earliest civilizations had very fertile soil
give examples of other River Valleys where Early Civilizations developed
Nile River, Tigres-Euphrates River Valley, Indus River and Yellow River
The Nomadic way of life became less common as permanent settlements established. What skill was developed to cause these early nomads to choose this new sedentary lifestyle
Size, Geography, and Culture caused ancient Greece to be fragmented into what type of Political Units?
The United States can trace its political ideology back to the Ancient Greeks. What politcal philosophy became a Greek legacy
Give examples of Roman Architecture, Law and Language. Explain how we use these today.
Roman Architecture- Large public structures- Classical style with arches, large columns and domes
Roman Laws- Republic form of government is used today along with laws that applied to all citizens.
Roman Language- Latin, basis for many of the languages and words used throughout the world. Spanish, Portuguese, French are languages based on Latin. English uses many latin based words.
Define " Cultural Diffusion"
Spreading of culture to other areas and people. Cultures become mixed as different culture come in contact through war, trade or other contact.
Provide examples of how Alexander the Great diffuesed culture and the effect on the world at that time.
The spread of Greek culture or Hellenistic Period. Alexander the Great spread Greeces influence and terretory into the east or Persia. Greek culture and art spread into northern Africa and Persia. Persian governmental principles of a a strong central government and beaurocratic principles
Greece and Rome have had many influences on today's society. Discuss what some of these influences are and give examples
Democratic and Republic based governments. Citizens have a part in controlling the actions of government in a direct way or through a representative. Greek and Roman architecture is still used, especially in large government or public work buildings.
The Byzantine Empire eventually collapsed due to constant invations from other kingdoms. What were the reasons for the attacks and who were some of these aggressors
Access to trade routes to western Europe, Mediterranean sea. Mongols, Ottoman Turks, Seljuk Turks attacked the empire
Fill in the Triangles to illustrate Feudalism in Europe and Japan
Both- Decentralized week government lead to local aristocrats taking power. Valued Military power, aristocrats and warriors ruled. Ritualized allegiences and support.
Europe- Contractual agreements providing what benefits groups would have for giving alegiance. Legacy was aristocratic lords created parliaments to help contral power of monarch.
Japan- Family and individual loyalty created ties. Fuedal leaders created collective decision making group.
Discuss the main goal of Feudalism by defining the "Fief System"
King needed control his lands. Barons were given land or fiefs (also known as manors). Barons where then loyal to the king because he gave them their wealth. They pay this back by giving their support to the king at all times, they collected taxes for the king, and provided troops and fight for the king when needed.
During the Middle Ages the Church in Rome controlled spiritual climate of Europe. What military campaigns were launched against the Muslims Turks in order to capture /rescue Jerusalem? What was the outcome?
The crusades. Little affect on middle east, westerners took back culture and technology.
Explain how relations between Muslims and Christians change in the later part of the Middle Ages?
Became more strained and less tollerant of one another. Fought over the trading routes to the East. The crusades had little affect on the Muslims.
How did the Silk Roads promote Cultural Diffusion
By brining into contact the Chinese, Indian, Muslim and European cultures through trade. Different parts of each culture where diffused as traders traveled from one area to another. They took the best of each culture and spread it around.
Explain the path of the Bubonic Plague along the trade routes between Asia and Europe
"The plague started in China and spread through contact between traders. It spread rapidly during the
List the effects of the Plague on Europe and why these contributed to the eventual collapse of Medieval society.
Europe lost almost 25% of its population. There where labor shortages, areas affected lost skilled workers, farmers, peasants, bureaucrats and rulers. There was social unrest and rebellions
After nearly 1000 years of darkness the "new light" of the Renaissance dawns on Eruope. Identify contributors of Art, Science and Literature during this time and provide examples of their contributions.
Copernicus- Earth goes around the sun
Kepler- Planetary Motion
Galileo- Gravity and Planetary Motion
Harvey- Circulatory System
Bacon- Scientific Method
Newton- Gravity and Laws of Motion
Guttenberg- Printing Press
Describe the philosopy of "Humanism." Describe the impact it had on European society during the Renaissance.
Focus on humankind as the center of intellectual and artistic endeavors. Emphasized the superiority of classical forms of art (Greek and Roman). Humans should seek and study the arts, literature, science.
In what ways did Humanism challenge the authority of the Church in Rome during the Renaissance?
Not all of your life needed to be dedicated to the church. Could study, create art, literature that is not tied to God.
Describe the concept of "Selling for Indulgences" How did this practice incite the Protestant Reformation?
The Roman Catholic Church had developed a way that you could pay for your way to get to heaven. Protestants believed that the way to heaven was through your relationship with God and not paying for or getting access through the church.
The selling of Indulgences promps Martin Luther to protest the authority of the Catholic Church. What was the document written by Martin Luther and where was it placed?
The "95 Theses" listed his problems with what the Catholic Church was doing. He nailed it to a Catholic Church door in Wittenberg, Germany.
Identify the effects of the Protestant Reformation.
Some countries cut their ties with the Catholic Church. Some Kings like Henry VII of England siezed church lands and created the Church of England. There where wars between Protestants and Catholics throughout Europe.
Johann Guttenberg invented the most technologically advance piece of equipment that changed the face of the world. What was this invention and what was the first thing that was produced from this invention?
The printing press. He printed the bible.
Discuss how the African Slave Trade impacted the Continent of Africa
Affected the costal areas the most. Tribes fought against each other in order to take captives and sell them as slaves. Though the areas where there was a large amount of slave trade had a population decrease the continent actually increased in population over this time period. Europeans traded guns for slaves and this also led to more fighting and tipped the balance of power in some regions to those tribes that had guns.
Native Americans were not used as Slaves in North America, why?
Naive Americans where used as slaves in North America. They where traded by other Indians that had captured them through war. They would trade them to French and British settlers. There use was very small compared to that of the African slaves.
Where were African Slaves considered the highest commodity?
They where stronger than natives, and where immune to European diseases. For work in the southeast US and South America, they where used to hotter climates.
Map interpreation. In your own words explain concept of the Triangle Trade during the 18th Century.
Europe provided guns and some other manufactured goods to Africa in exchange for slaves. Slaves where used in the new world to provide labor. The new world provide raw materials (sugar, tobacco, wood) back to Europe in exchange for manufactured goods. All three where connected. Europe needed some place to sell the manufactured goods. The New World needed manufactured goods and slaves to live and to harvest the raw materials to send back to Europe.
Things that are of this world. Art, Pleasure, Theater, Games, Sport- NOT religious or of the spiritual world
What theory caused major conflict between the Secular world and the Catholic Church? Explain this theory.
Darwinism was established by theories from Charles Darwin (biologist). Survival of the fitist. Life adapts to change and the plants and animals that adapt the best or have the strongest traits survive. He said that there where previous species of humans evolved from. This did not go along with the Church's beliefs in God making humans in his image.
Compare the Philosophies of Locke and Voltaire to the Declaration of Independence and the US Bill of Rights
Locke also believed in the following political and philosophical principles: (1) government is required to protect people's natural rights, (2) government should have limited power, (3) the type of government should be accepted by all citizens, (4) absolute monarchy is immoral, (5) government has an obligation to those it governs, and (6) people have the right to overthrow government if the it fails its obligations or takes away natural rights. Locke writings also suggest the three branches of government
Voltaire's ideas influenced the Declaration of Independence and Constitution in many ways, but the most significant was his belief in religion and freedom from government, which influenced the 1st Amendment to the Constitution.
Organise the "Triangle" proportionately to illustrate the social classes of France prior to the Revolution
The 1st, 2nd and 3rd Estates. The 1st Estate was the Church/Clergy of the Catholic Church. The 2nd Estate was the nobility which included the monarchy. The 3rd Estate included everyone else, power in the 3rd estate belonged to the lawyers, merchants and lower government officials. The power resided with the 1st and 2nd estate, they each helped one another usually. The 3rd Estate represented the most people but did not have a say in government or much of their own lives. This is what led the 3rd Estate rebelling.
"Liberty! Equality! Fraterity!" was the cry of the Revolutionaires in France during the late 18th Century. Explain what this s\logan meant to the 3rd Estate?
Liberty - meant freedom and that all men and women have rights. For the revolution it meant freedom from the 1st and 2nd Estates controlling their lives.
Equality - The law should be the same for all. All citizens are equal.
Fraternity - All citizens where in this together. It was a united group.
Define "Nationalism" Explain how the French Revolution and mostly Napoleon spread this idea throughout Europe.
Nationalism- the belief that the nation is important. More important than regional or local needs. Proud of national achievements. Napoleon achieved nationalistic pride because of his military success abroad.
Evaluate the outcome of the Congress of Vienna. How did Europe change because of this?
Europe was devided up so there where multiple major powers. This way there was not one that could overrun all the others. Monarchs where given back their power. Long term, internal revolutions returned to overthrow the Monarchs
Starting in Europe the Industrial Revolution changed the world. Discuss the main focus of the Industrial Revolution and summarize the origins in Europe.
The Industrial Revolution began in Britain. With an increasing population the economy moved from one that was agriculture based to manufacturing. Mostly textiles and metal products where produced. This also increased the ability of strong nations to produce more guns and new war machines (cannons, ect.)
Define "Socialism" how did the economic system make its way into European society?
State control of property and producation of needed materials (food and goods). Everyone is equal and shares in the the states production. Pushed for typically by the lower working class and middle class that where controlled by aristocrats or the monarchy. Karl Marx is a German that was a leader in socialist movement.
Why would life expectancy increase during the Industrial Revolution, support your opinion with factual evidence.
People had more money and where better able to feed, house and cloth themselves, they lived better lives. The discovery of germs by Louis Pasteur also led to the understanding that unsanitary conditions spread disease. Medical workers changed their practices and childbirth death rates dropped.
Evaluate the long term successes of the Industrial Revolution
It was very successful, more people had work, more people had money, more leisure time, there was a better standard of living. The downside was that it allowed contries to also wage greater wars because of being able to manufacture supplies easier.
Give examples of Imperialism in Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries. Demonstrate how Imperialism affected continents such as Africa, Asia and South America
European countries (Britian, France, Spain, Portugal and the Dutch) established colonies or took over areas throughout the world.
Africa- Slave trade took humans from the coastal areas. Other areas where controlled due to their access to gold or other precious materials
India- India's major trading ports (textiles) where highly sought after. The British controlled portions of India for many years
South America- The native populations where almost whiped out due to European diseases. Those that survived worked for or where slaves to the European settlers who established large working plantations. The producation of sugar and other natural resources where established. Created a culture dependent on Europe for manufactured goods.
"...to explore strange new worlds, to seek out new life and new civilizations, to boldly go where no man has gone before." This pop culture phrase could be used to devend colonization by the Europeans. Discuss the real purposes behind colonization by the Europeans during the 18th and 19th centuries.
To establish new areas for trade. Colonies where either used to produce raw materials or precious minerals that could be traded elsewhere or they where established and became consumers of the manufactured goods from the home country.
Interpret Great Britain's motivation for their colonization of India.
The British East India Company originally established control over portions of India due to its trade of cotton. They instituted British government values and social reforms. A rebelion against the company caused the British government to take India over as a colony. The British tried to "fix" the Indians by changing their customs, dress and schooling.
Define and give examples of the MAIN causes of the WWI
1) Tension between Germany and France where ongoing over lands at their borders
2) Austria-Hungary and Serbia had tensions over Austria-Hungary control of their lands. Russia backed Serbia. A Serbian killed the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary.
3) Germany was in an Alliance with Austria-Hungary and if they where going to war Germany would support them. If Austria-Hungary attacked Serbia, Russia would support them. Russia was also in an alliance with France and Great Britian so it pulled all of them into the battle
What new weapons were developed during WWI? How did this new technology change the way war was faught?
Trench warfare was created to try to protect from themselves from large artillary. Machine guns, poison gas, tanks and larger artillary where all developed.
Discuss how WWI changed the face of the world in the early 20th century
Eastern block countries where carved out of Austria and parts of Germany. Germans where to pay reparations to other countries. Russia remained a giant power to the east of the eastern European countries. League of Nations was created but United States congress would not allow US to join.
What major event was occurring in Russia during WWI? Summarize why this event caused Russia to back our of WWI
Communist revolt of 1917. After two short revolutions in October and November the new Russian leaders (Lenin) signed a peace treaty with Germany and gave up much of their Western lands. Russia was having food shortages and worker revolts. The leaders felt they needed to maintain control of the country and get out of the war.
Define "Communism." Defend the reasons this form of Government was so desirable in Russia during the early 20th century
The political and economic based government that replaces private property and a capatalist economy with government ownership and control of everything (e.g., mines, mills, and factories, farms). The government then provides food, shelter and jobs to the citizens. This was enticing because there was not enough food or work at this time in Russia.
Identify the major points of the Treaty of Versailles and how this treaty eventually led to WWII
Germany lost land along all borders, including Alsace-Lorraine and the Polish Corridor
German military forces were severely restricted and a demilitarized zone was created along lands bordering France and Belgium.
• Germany had to pay very high reparations for war to specific Allied Powers.
• An international organization called the League of Nations was created.
• Germany's overseas possessions were placed under the control of the League, remaining as mandates until they were ready for independence
• The map of Eastern Europe was redrawn along ethnic lines, recreating the country of Poland, and creating Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Austria, and Hungary. Austria-Hungary as a political empire was destroyed.
• Although the Ottoman Empire was dismantled as well, the resulting pieces were designated as mandates, not independent countries.
Germany felt like to much of their lands where taken and they where unfairly blamed for the war starting. The high price of reparations to Germany threatend that Germany would not be able to recover. Russia was left out of the treaty discussions. The League of Nations did not invite Germany or Russia and the United States did not agree to join, this was the institution created to keep another war from starting.
Adolf Hitler eventually became Chancellor of Germany. Construct the timeline of Hitler's ascending to power and define key events which ultimately plunges Europe into WWII
Hitler Joins German Workers' Party - 1919
Nazi Party is Formed - 1920
Hitler Named Leader of Nazi Party - July 1921
Hitler on Trial for Treason - February 26, 1924
Hitler's Book ""Mein Kampf"" 1925
Hitler Runs for President - 1932
Hitler Named Chancellor of Germany - January 30, 1933
Hitler Becomes Fuhruer (Dictator) of Germany - August 19, 1934
Hitler violated the Versailles Treaty by taking back lands through force that where taken away after WWI- 1935-1938
Nazis take Czechoslovakia - March 15, 1939"
Define "Appeasement" Discuss the Munich Conference and its outcome
Hitler violated the Versailles Treaty by taking back lands through force that where taken away after WWI. The British Prime Minister structure an agreement with Hitler that Germany could keep this territory as long as the did not take any more. This only provided Hitler with more time to prepare for the larger scale war.
What event led to the United States entering into WWII? Discuss the reasons which led to this event.
Japan attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1942. Japan had formed an alliance with Germany, gone to war in China and taken over many of the southeast asian islands
Explain the concept: Mutual Assured Destruction. How did this keep the Cold War, "cold"?
With the build up of nuclear weapons if one side would launch nuclear bombs the other side would respond with their nuclear weapons and both countries would be destroyed
With the exception of the Holocaust, provide several examples of Genocide in the late 20th century.
Armenian genocide- Turks blamed Armenian minority for their losses in WWI to the Russians. Killed more than a million people.
"One man's terrorist, is another man's revolutionary." In the 21st century how is terrorism defined?
Terrorism in the 21st century is typically done by religious/political factions to cause fear or to extract revenge for perceived injustices. Terrorists have taken to striking civilians rather than political leaders or government buildings or officials.