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25 terms

Common Neuromuscular Disorders

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Neuropathy
Disorder of nerve, involving axon and/or myelin
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS)
Demyelination of peripheral nerves caused by immune system dysfunction
Neuropathy-Clinical Signs & Symptoms
Sensory and/or motor loss, associated with LMN symptoms, Diabetic stocking/glove distribution
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS)-Clinical Signs & Symptoms
Progressive weakness, areflexia, paresthesias (distal extremities)
Myopathy-Clinical Signs & Symptoms
Muscle weakness, worse proximally, no sensory or reflex loss
Muscular dystrophy (MD)
Degeneration of muscle fiber
Dermatomyositis
inflammation of the skin and underlying muscle tissue, involving degeneration of collagen, discoloration, and swelling, typically occurring as an autoimmune condition or associated with internal cancer.
Myasthenia|ˌmīəsˈθēnēə|
Disorder of neuromuscular junction at post-synaptic membrance
Myasthenia Gravis-Clinical Signs & Symptoms
Symmetrical weakness, proximal limb, neck, diaphragm, eyelids; normal reflexes and sensation; weakness increases with repetitive use
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS-Lou Gehrig's Disease)
Degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and brain
ALS-Lou Gehrig's Disease-Clinical Signs & Symptoms
Progressive weakness, paralysis, loss of swallowing, respiration; Both UMN and LMN symptoms, initial muscle weakness of distal UE, LE or face; later, spasticity and hyperreflexia (sensation spared)
SCI: Brown-Sequard
Ipsilateral weakness, loss of vibration/position with contralateral loss of pain and temperature
SCI: Central Cord
UE worse than LE involvement, preserved sacral function
SCI: Posterior Cord
Loss of proprioception, 2-point discrimination with intact pain, temperature, touch sensations, and motor function
SCI: Anterior Cord
Loss of pain, temperature, and motor function with intact proprioception and vibratory senses
Stroke
Loss of blood flow to brain from ischemia (80%) or hemorrhagic causes
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Progressive demyelination disease of CNS, causing sclerotic plaques in white matter; onset young adults aged 20-50
Multiple Sclerosis-Clinical Signs & Symptoms
diplopia, sensory loss, weakness, fatigue, spasticity, nystagmus, intention tremor, dysarthria, incontinence, cognitive, affective changes
Parkinson's Disease
Progressive disorder basal ganglia, loss of dopamine in substantia nigra
Parkinson's Disease-Cardinal signs
bradykinesia, tremor, postural instability, rigidity
Huntington's Chorea
Inherited disorder, mid-life onset, cell death caudate/putamen basal ganglia
Huntington's Chorea-Clinical Signs & Symptoms
Involuntary movements-Chorea, ataxia+personality change/dementia
Cerebellar Ataxia
Extremity and/or trunk ataxia, intention tremor, dysmetria and dysrhythmia
Traumatic Brain Injury-Clinical Signs & Symptoms
Coma, cognitive loss, sensory/motor loss, impairment of coordination, speech, behavior, vision, swallowing
Polymyositis
A type of chronic inflammatory means 'many muscle inflammation'; myopathy related to dermatomyositis and inclusion body myositis.