US History Fall Final (2016)
Terms in this set (77)
Economic Opportunities of the West
Mining, Ranching & Farming
A vast area of grassland owned by the federal government where ranchers could graze their herds for free.
A western community that grew quickly because of the mining boom and often disappeared when the boom ended
Impact of Transcontinental Railroad
People were able to travel across the US; Native Americans were moved to make way for the railroad
Homestead Act of 1862
this allowed a settler to acquire 160 acres by living on it for five years, improving it and paying about $30
Life on the Great Plains
Cold, harsh winters, no trees, houses made of sod
African Americans who moved from post reconstruction South to Kansas.
Native American Culture
Communal ownership of land, ancestor & nature-based religion
Areas of federal land set aside for Native Americans
1887 law that distributed reservation land to individual Native American owners
Adopting the traits of another culture. Often happens over time when one immigrates into a new country.
The major disagreement between Plains Indians and the US Government
Ownership of land
Factors leading to US Industrialization
Resources from the West, Immigration, Inventions, and the Transcontinental Railroad.
Idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs.
A market in which there are many buyers but only one seller.
A social theory which states that the level a person rises to in society and wealth is determined by their genetic background.
An American capitalist who acquired a fortune in the late nineteenth century by ruthless means.
Captains of Industry
A name given company owners such as Carnegie and Rockefeller by people who believed they steered the economy into prosperity.
An organization formed by workers to strive for better wages and working conditions.
Gospel of Wealth
The belief that, as the guardians of society's wealth, the rich have a duty to serve society; promoted by Andrew Carnegie; Carnegie donated more than $350 million to libraries, school, peace initiatives, and the arts.
Efforts to improve the well-being of humankind, generally through giving money.
Impact of Urbanization on Cities
Cheap housing for immigrants (tenements), skyscrapers, mass transit
Poorly built, overcrowded housing where many immigrants lived.
A policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones.
Chinese Exclusion Act
Prohibited future immigration of Chinese.
Movement of farmers in the late 1800s to become politically involved to protect their interest in America; movement wanted to expand the money supply and regulate Big Business.
1890 - 1920, Progressives tended to be women, middle class, and live in urban areas. Progressives sought to use government influence to solve societal problems.
Role of Government in the Progressive Era
Government worked to make worker and consumer lives better through laws (pure food & drug, workplace safety)
Worker's Gains in the Progressive Era
8 hour workday, better wages and improved working conditions
Government activities aimed at breaking up monopolies and trusts; Teddy Roosevelt & William Howard Taft led this effort.
Sherman & Clayton Anti-Trust Acts
legislation that outlawed monopolies, example of government regulation
Federal Trade Commission
Outlaws unfair business practices, example of government regulation
Journalists and photographers that worked to expose the problems of the Gilded Age; Upton Sinclair's, The Jungle, for example.
Federal income tax
Women granted the right to vote
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
Deadly fire that led to the creation of safety regulations in the workplace.
Plessy v. Ferguson
Supreme Court decision that legalized discrimination/segregation in the United States.
Foreign policy apporach where stronger countries dominated weaker countries
Causes of Imperialism
To gain power through a strong navy, access to new markets and to spread Democracy and Christianity.
Social Darwinism and Imperialism
Dominating smaller countries to spread our superior culture such as Democracy and Christianity
Location of US Imperialism
Asia and Latin America
People who opposed US imperialism; believed that US was hypocritical -- took rights away from people instead of spreading democracy
Journalists who created exaggerated headlines to sell newspapers.
US navy ship that exploded in Havana harbor. US Newspapers blamed Spain.
Treaty of Paris
Ends the Spanish American War (Cuba free from Spain, US acquired Guam and Puerto Rico, US buys Philippines for $20 million)
An amendment attached to the Cuban Constitution that stated the US had the right to intervene in Cuban affairs and that the US may control Guantanamo Bay.
War in the Philippines
War between the United States and Filipino rebels who wanted independence.
Territory given to the United States by the Treaty of Paris; remains a territory today.
A shortcut from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans built for economic and military reasons
Spark that ignited World War I
Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
US entry into World War I
allowed Allied Powers to advance quickly on Germany, ending WWI
New weapons & technology from WWI
Machine guns, tanks, flame-throwers, poison gas
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
Germany used submarines to get around the British Blockade; all ships in those waters were targeted.
Soldiers dug trenches for protection from the new, deadly weapons that were being used.
used to increase support the war effort such as enlisting, rationing or growing Victory gardens
African-American & Women during WWI
recruited to fill factory jobs that white men left to fight in the war
African Americans moved from rural areas in the South to northern cities
Treaty of Versailles
treaty created after WWI that ended up creating the problems that led to WWII
League of Nations
organization created at the end of WWI to prevent another war
Resurgence of Nativism
Anti-immigrant sentiment that increased following WWI
Sacco & Vanzetti Trial
example of Nativism in 1920s: two Italian immigrants were executed despite lack of evidence
Ku Klux Klan
this group use violence against New Immigrants as an example of Nativism in 1920s.
Emergency Quota Act/National Origins Act of 1924
example of Nativism in 1920s: set immigration to 2% for New Immigrants
the purchase, sale or transportation is illegal due to the 18th Amendment
developed as a result of supplying alcohol during Prohibition
women who expressed new freedom through fashion, dance and opposition to sexual norms
revival of African-American music & literature
laissez-faire policies, advertising and use of credit led to a boom of consumerism
Underlying Causes of Great Depression
use of credit, overproduction, speculation, farming industry, distribution of wealth, economic policies
Conservative Policies of 1930s
the government should let the economy fix itself
Franklin D Roosevelt (FDR)
Elected in 1932 because he backed an active government who would fix the problems of the Depression
Broke tradition by actively promoting her husband's New Deal policies
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
guaranteed bank deposits would be repaid if banks closed
Social Security Act
Used payroll taxes to fund the retirement of elderly workers
Criticisms of the New Deal
Govt is too involved; created national debt; it didn't end Depression
The belief that govt should spend money to stimulate the economy, even if means going into debt; also called deficit spending
Impact of the New Deal
Established that the federal government will actively intervene to fix economic problems