Biology Fall Final Exam Study Guide


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Define Biology
Science that seeks to understand the living world.
Know how to form a hypothesis given a set of observations
1. Use prior knowledge, or what they already know.
2. Logical Inference.
Know the benefits of a controlled experiment
One variable is changed at a time.
Identify the control group in a controlled experiment
All other variables are changing, this one is the neutral/non-changing one.
Example: Water and Water with salt are being tested. Water is the controlled group.
Know the characteristics of living things
All living things:
1. Made up of cells.
2. Reproduce
3. Based on a universal genetic code (DNA)
4. Grow and Develop
5. Obtain/ use materials and energy
6. Respond to their environment
7. Maintain a stable environment
8. Change/ Develop over time.
Know the levels of biological organization
1. Biosphere
2. Ecosystem
3. Community
4. Population
5. Organism
6. Group of cells
7. Cells
8. Molecules
Given an example, identify the level of biological organization
Community: snake/dog/people.
Parts of an atom
Basic unit of matter.
Proton: inside
Nuetron: inside
Electron: outside
How are Isotopes named? How do you determine the name of an isotope?
The sum of protons&nuetrons.
6 electrons
6 protons
6 nuetrons
= 12
How are covalent bonds and ionic bonds formed?
Covalent: when electrons are shared between atoms.

Ionic: one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
How are positive and negative ions formed
Ions are formed when an atome either loses or gains an electron.
A positive ion is formed when an element, typically a metal loses 1 or more electrons.
A negative ion is formed when an element, typically a nonmetal gains 1 or more electrons
Properties of the polar water molecule
A water molecule is polar because there is an uneven distribution of electrons between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms.
Identify the solute and solvent in a solution
Solute: Substance that is dissolved (sugar)
Solvent: Substance in which the solute dissolves(water).
Determine whether a solution is an acid or base given the pH
Acid: 0-7, more H+ ions than OH- ions
Base: 8-14, more OH- ions than H+ ions
What element is the basis for all life
CARBON---> main source of energy.
What the monomers are of biological macromolecules.
Smaller units. When they link together they make polynomers. Macromolecules are formed by polymerization.
What are enzymes and what are they composed of.
1. proteins
2. speed up chemical reactions in cells.
Properties of Carbs. Give example.
It is made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms 1:2:1

starch: pasta/bread
Major elements found in each biological molecule.
1. Lipids
-store energy
-not soluble in water
-made of carbon and hydrogen atoms.
How do living things use lipids.
How an enzyme interacts with a substrate to catalyze a reaction.
-Enzyme and substrate must fit together to work
- the reactant must collide with enough energy and the existing bonds will be broken and form new ones.
Identify whether a cell is prokaryotic or eukaryoctic
Prokaryotic: Cells have genetic materical that is NOT contained in a nucleus.
Eukaryoctic: Cells contain a nucleus in which their genetic material is OUTSIDE the cell.
Identify whether a cell is a plant or animal cell
-cell wall

Know the parts of the cell theory
1. all living things are composed of cells
2. basic unit of structure and function in living things
3. new cells are produced from old cells
Know how a plant cell is affected by hypotonic, isotonic, and hypertonic solutions
Hypotonic: below strength (lesser concentration of two solutions)
Isotonic: Equal concentration (of two solutions.)
Hypertonic: greater concentration (of two solutions)
How are large molecules taken into the cell
-active transport
-phagocytosis: cell eating: surronds
-endocytosis: taking material into a cell membrane
-pinocytosis: pinch off and form vacoules
Examples of matericals that can enter and exit a cell through simple diffusion
Water and small molecules.
What is active transport and how does it work?
-cells sometimes must move in the opposite direction--> against a concentration difference<--
-protein pumps: pushes stuff along
What is osmosis and how does it work?
-diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
-shifts from higher to lower concentration so it is equal.*
What is a cell membrane composed of?
strong, flexile barrier (plasma)

-lipid bilayer
-protein channel
-carb chains
Difference between a heterotroph and autotroph
Autotroph: make own food (plants)
Heterotroph: cannot use the sun's energy directly. Obtains energy from food.
Parts of an ATP molecule
-store and releases energy-
1. adenine
2. 5-carbon ribose
3. 3 phosphate groups
How is energy released from ATP?
a phosphate group is released
-2 are remaining.
Parts of an ADP molecule
-2 phosphate groups
Know the equation for photosynthesis
Know what materials are required from photosynthesis to occur.
carbon dioxide+water--->sugar+oxygen.
Purpose of plant pigments
gather the sun's energy with light- absorbing molecules (pigments).
Why are plants green?
green light is reflected by leaves.
What colors of light do plants absorb best?
blue-violet & red.
What are the steps of the light-dependent reactions and the Calvin Cycle?
-produce oxygen gas
-convert ADP and NADP+ into the energy carries ATP and NADPH
Where do the light-dependent reactions and the Calvin Cycle take place?
In the thykaloid membranes of chloroplasts.
Identify the inputs and products of the light-dependent reactions and the Calvin Cycle.
energy from sunlight --> ATP, NADPH, & oxygen

CC: ATP&NADPH to produce sugars
-sugars are from light-dependent reactions.
Know the purpose of cellular respiration
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen.
Know the sequence of events in cellular respiration.
-krebs cycle
-electron transport chain
Know the source of electrons in the electron transport chain.
high-energy electrons from the Krebs cycle.
Know whether or not photosynthesis and cellular respiration occurs in plants.
Does occur in plants, photosynthesis is how plants get energy and food