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Nutrition Exam 2
Terms in this set (64)
Describe how hormones and the nervous system control stomach acidity, intestinal pH, bile release, and GI motility
The hormone gastrin is released when food enters the stomach, which in turn stimulates the stomach glands to release hydrochloric acid. When pH 1.5 is reached, the acid stops producing.
What nutrients enter the blood stream directly
water soluble nutrients and smaller products of fat digestion
What nutrients enter the lymphatic system
Larger fats and fat soluble vitamins that are insoluble in water (Chylomicrons)
Prebiotics and dietary source
Prebiotics: encourage the growth and activity of bacteria. lowers risk of GI infections, inflammation & disorders, Increases bioavailability of nutrients, regulates appetite and satiety (Oatmeal)
Probiotic and dietary source
Living microorganisms found in food: enhance immune function, and protect against colon cancer. (Yogurt)
how does the pancreas protect from digesting itself?
Pancreas produces inactive enzymes that are not activated until they reach the small intestine which secretes enterokinase
What is the impact of gallbladder removal on the bodies ability to digest fats ?
Makes it harder to digest fat, the body will adjust as the gall bladder is not essential
level of sweetness of glucose, galactose and fructose (i.e. mildly sweet, barely sweet or very sweet)
Glucose: Mildly sweet
Galactose: Barely Sweet
Fructose: Very Sweet
links two monosaccharides together (Hydroxyl group and a hydrogen atom link together with a single oxygen to create water)
the disaccharide maltose (Starch) splits into two glucose molecules with H added to one and OH to the other (from the water molecule)
Where is glycogen stored in the body?
Liver and Muscle Cells
Composition of Disaccharides (Maltose, Sucrose and Lactose)
Maltose= Glucose + Glucose
Sucrose= Fructose + Glucose
Lactose= Galactose + Fructose
Carbohydrate digestion in the mouth
salivary gland amylase hydrolyzing starch. (starch to polysaccharides and disaccharide maltose) (Little digestion because food doesn't stay here long)
Carbohydrate digestion in the stomach
Salivary amylase is inactivated and carb digestion stops
Carbohydrate digestion in the Small Intestine
Pancreatic Amylase continues breakdown from polysaccharides to shorter glucose chains and maltose. Their Maltase breaks down maltose, Sucrase breaks down sucrose and Lactase breaks down lactose. All poly/disaccharides have been broken down to monosaccharides which are absorbed. (Most breakdown done here)
Carbohydrate Digestion in the Large Intestine
Only fibers remain. They attract water which softens passage, and small amount may be broken down and absorbed creating minimal energy
the conversion of protein to glucose, caused when a person does not consume adequate carbs.
After meal, excess glucose molecules linked together in liver to create glycogen
When blood glucose goes down, glycogen becomes glucose.
How does insulin work to maintain glucose homeostasis
Moves glucose from the blood into the cells which use it for energy or stores it as glycogen (Lowers glucose levels)
How does glucagon work to maintain glucose homeostasis
Brings glucose out of storage when necessary, by signaling liver to break down glycogen into glucose and release into blood for use by body cells (Raises glucose level)
What is hypoglycemia and how can it be prevented?
hypoglycemia: When blood glucose drops too low.
prevention: avoid refined carbs and aim for fiber-containing macronutrients. Smaller meals eaten more frequently.
How to treat hypoglycemia when it occurs
rapid sugar intake or medical intervention
recommended percentage of total kcal that should be derived from carbohydrates
45-65% of total kcal from Carbs for healthy individuals
percentage of the world's adult population that shows good tolerance to lactose ingestion
30% of adult population
What is the major carbohydrate found in milk?
What is the minimum amount of carbohydrate intake that is required to prevent ketosis?
50-100 grams of carbs each day
What percentage of packaged foods in the US contain added sugar?
Identify added sugars in an ingredient listing
Dextrose, honey, fructose, molasses, nectar, concentrated fruit juice, anything ending in sugar, syrup, and sweetener.
Describe the findings of the October 2014 article in Nature on artificial sweeteners
Mice developed glucose intolerance when fed saccharin. Artificial sweeteners appear to affect the composition and function of GI bacteria.
Foods that contain Carbohydrates
Fruits, vegetables (Starchy), milk and milk products, nuts and legumes.
How has average energy intake and average body weight in the US changed since the 1970s?
Energy intake has increased by 200 to 300 k calories per day and Average body weight has increased 20 to 30 pounds
Types of fatty acids with double bonds
Saturated, MUFA, PUFA
What is the impact of chain length and degree of saturation on firmness of fatty acids?
Chain Length: The longer fatty acid chain the firmer
Degree of Saturation: Generally, less saturation = less firm (Unsaturated vegetable oil is liquid at room temp, more saturated animal fats are solid.)
Number of Carbons contained in a SCFA, LCFA and MCFA
SCFA= less then 6 carbons
MCFA= 6-10 Carbons
LCFA= 12-24 Carbons
What is the type of reaction that links fatty acids to glycerol to form triglycerides?
Dietary sources of short- chain and medium- chain fatty acids
Primarily Dairy Products
Dietary sources of Omega-3 fatty acids
walnut, canola and flaxseed oils, flaxseed, walnuts, and fatty fish
Dietary sources of cholesterol
All food derived from animals
Two substances produced from cholesterol
Bile Acids and Vitamin D
How can plant sterols interfere with cholesterol absorption?
They are structurally similar to cholesterol
lipoprotein containing the greatest proportion of cholesterol
LDL (Low Density lipoprotein)
Lipoprotein containing the greatest amount of protein
HDL (High Density Lipoprotein)
Strategies to increase consumption of healthier fats and decrease consumption of saturated fats
Instead of bacon on salad choose sunflower seeds
Instead of potato chips choose nuts
Instead of steak choose salmon
Instead of grain fed beef choose grass fed beef
What is the difference between the effects of eicosanoids produced from omega-3 fatty acids vs. omega-6 fatty acid
Omega-3 fatty acids: Lower BP, prevent blood clot formation, protect against irregular heartbeat, and reduce inflammation
Omega-6 fatty acids: promote clot formation, inflammation, and blood vessel constriction
Number of amino acids in a dipeptide and a tripeptide
dipeptide: two amino acids bonded together
Tripeptide: three amino acids bonded together
Function of Pepsin
Cleaves proteins into smaller polypeptides and some amino acids
Function of Proteases
hydrolize protein further when it reaches the small intestine
Function of peptidase
enzyme on membrane surfaces of intestinal cell that splits di/tripeptides into single amino acids
What is an example of how variation in a primary protein structure can result in disease?
sickle cell anemia can occur when hemoglobin's polypeptide chains are not sequenced correctly, causing the cell to lose its ability to carry oxygen effectively, causing raised energy needs that create medical problems that can possibly be deadly
list the functions of proteins
Structural, enzymes, hormones, and regulating body fluid, regulating acid base, transport, anti-bodies, Gluconeogenesis
Function of protein: Structural
building blocks of muscles, blood and skin, used to replace cells, and collagen (Protein that bones, teeth, ligaments, scars and tendons are made of
Function of Protein: Enzymes
All enzymes are proteins. Enzymes are used for digestion, building bones, converting one substance to another.
Function of Protein: Hormones
Some hormones are proteins (Insulin, Glucagon, thyroxin)
Function of Protein: Regulating body fluid
Protein in blood vessels attracts fluid and prevents fluid from accumulating between cells
Function of Protein: Regulating Acid- Base
Protein have negative charges and attract hydrogen ions, accepting and releasing them (Acting as buffers)
Function of Protein: Transport
Transport and store nutrients and carry oxygen
Function of Protein: Antibodies
giant protein molecules that combat viruses
Function of Protein: Gluconeogenesis
Proteins sacrificed during starvation or inadequate carbohydrate intake
Function of Protein: Other roles
Blood clotting and vision
Positive vs negative nitrogen balance
Positive: protein from food
Negative: Protein lost in urine, feces and sweat
Describe nitrogen balance (Positive and negative balance)
If the body degrades more then it synthesizes, nitrogen balance is negative (caused by starvation or severe stresses like burns). If the body synthesizes more then it degrades then nitrogen balance is positive (growing infants, children, adolescents, pregnant women, and people recovering from protein deficiency.
What is the first step in the breakdown of amino acids?
Deamination: amino acids are stripped of their nitrogen-containing amino groups.
What is the name of the process where nonessential amino acids are produced by transferring the amine group from an amino acid to a keto acid?
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