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AP Gov Final Semester 1
Terms in this set (250)
The institutions and processes that make decisions for a society
Parties, elections, interest groups, and the media. The political channels through which people's concerns become political issues on the policy agenda.
Reveals the what our government responds to the priorities of its people, process by which policy comes into being and evolves
System of selecting policy makers and of organizing government so that policy reflects citizens' preferences.
Equality in voting, effective participation, enlightened understanding, citizen control of the agenda, and inclusion
Equality of opportunity, equality in voting
Groups with shared interests influence public policy by pressing their concerns through organized efforts, no single group usually dominates. Believes public interest generally prevails. (minorities working together)
Our society is divided along class lines and an upper-class elite pulls the strings of government. Upper-class elite holds power
Idea that many competing groups are so strong that the government is weakened, as the influence of so many groups cripples government's ability to make policy
Rights inherent in human beings, not dependent on government. Life, liberty, and property
Humans have natural rights, but need some form of law. Governments must provide standing laws, supreme power can't take from and man without consent.
Form of government in which the peoples select representatives to govern them and make laws
Officials are elected to represent the citizen's preferences
A nation's basic law. It creates political institutions, assigns or divides powers in government, and often provides certain guarantees to citizens.
Declaration of Independence
The document approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British monarch and declared their independences
Articles of Confederation
First constitution of US, adopted by congress. Established national legislature, continental congress
A series of attacks on courthouses by a small band of farmers led by revolutionary war captain Daniel Shays to block foreclosure proceedings.
Proposal at constitutional convention that called for representation of each state in congress in proportion to that state's population.
New Jersey Plan
Proposal at constitutional convention that called for equal representation of each state in congress, regardless of population.
Compromise reached at convention that said house of representatives is based on state's population and senate has 2 representatives from each state
Separation of Powers
Requires each branch of government to be relatively independent of the other so that power is shared among them.
Checks and balances
Limit governments power by requiring that power be balanced among different government institutions
Supporters of the US constitution
Opponents of the American Constitution
Collections of 85 papers written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under pen name publius to defend the constitution in detail
Bill of Rights
First 10 amendments of the constitution
Power of the courts to determine whether acts of the government are constitutional
Marbury V. Madison
Case where supreme court asserted its right to determine the meaning of the US constitution. Established courts power of judicial review
Given to states or communities to support broad programs in areas such as community development and social services
Main source of federal aid: can only be used for specific purposes or "categories" of state and local spending. Come with strings attached
Powers shared by both federal and state governments
Powers reserved to the states
Transferring responsibility for policies from the federal government to the states and local government
System of government in which both the states and national government remain supreme within their own spheres. Each is responsible for some policies
Authorizes congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers
Powers of the federal government that are specifically addressed in the constitution for congress. Ex: coin money and regulate its value, impose taxes.
State surrenders a person charged with a crime tot he state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed.
A way of organizing a nation so that 2 or more levels of government have formal authority over the same land and people. System of shared power between units of government.
Pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in federal system; cornerstone of national government's relations with state and local government.
Federal categorical grants distributed according to a formula specified in legislation or administrative regulations.
Full faith and credit
Requires each state to recognize the public acts, records, and judicial proceeding of all other states
Gibbons vs. Odgen
Supreme court interpreted constitution broadly, giving congress power to regulate interstate commerce, as encompassing virtually every form of commercial activity.
Powers of the federal government that go beyond those enumerated in the constitution in accordance with the statement in the constitution that congress has power to "make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution"
The powers necessary for a branch of government to get its job done
Workings of the federal system- entire set of interactions among national, state, and local governments, including regulations, transfers of funds, and sharing of information
Requirements that direct states or local governments to provide additional services under threat of penalties or as a condition of a federal grant
McCulloh V. Maryland
Established the supremacy of the national government over state government
Federal categorical grant given for specific purposes and awarded on basis of merits of applications
Clause in constitution that makes the constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws as long as the national government is acting within its constitutional limits
Constitutional amendment stating "the powers not delegated to the US by the constitution nor prohibited by it, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.
US V. Lopez
Gun Free School Zones Act exceeded Congress' authority to regulate interstate commerce.
An actual enumeration of the population, which the constitution requires the government to conduct every 10 years. Tool for understanding demographic changes.
Future situation in which the non-hispanic whites will represent a minority of the US population and minority groups together will represent the majority
Process through which individuals in a society acquire political attitudes, views, and knowledge based on inputs from family, schools, the media, and others
An overall set of values widely shared with in a society
The process of reallocating seats in the house of representatives every 10 years on the basis of the results of the census
A relatively small proportion of people who are chosen in a survey so as to be representative of the whole
Key technique employed by survey researchers which operates on the principle that everyone should have an equal probability of being selected for the sample
The level of confidence in the findings of a public opinion poll. The more people interviewed, the more confident one can be of the results.
Public opinion surveys used by major media pollsters to predict electoral winners with speed and precision.
Coherent set of beliefs about politics, public policy, and public purpose, which helps give meaning to political events.
Pattern in which women are more likely to support democratic candidates
All the activities used by citizens to influence the selection of political leaders or the policies they pursue. Ex: protesting and voting
The official endorsement of a candidate for office by a political party. success in nomination requires momentum, money, and media
The master game plan candidates lay out to guide their electoral campaign
National party leaders who automatically get a delegate slot at the national convention
National Party Convention
The supreme power within each of the parties. The convention meets every 4 years to nominate the party's presidential and vice presidential candidates and to write the party's platform
A system for selecting convention delegates used in about a dozen mostly rural states in which voters must show up at a set time and attend an open meeting to express their presidential preference.
Any voter can attend to express their presidential preference
You must be registered with that party to express your presidential preference
The recent tendency of states to hold primaries early in the calendar in order to capitalize on media attention.
A political party's statement of its goals and policies for the next 4 years
Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA)
Law passed in 1974 for reforming campaign finances. Created the FEC, provided public financing for presidential primaries and general elections, limited presidential campaign spending, required disclosure, attempted to limit contributors.
Federal Election Commission (FEC)
6 member bipartisan agency created by federal election campaign act. FEC administers and enforces campaign finance laws
Independent political groups that are not subject to contribution restrictions because they do not directly seek the election of particular candidates. Section 527 of the tax code specifies that contributions to such groups must be reported to IRS.
Political funding vehicles created by the 1974 campaign finance reforms. A corporation, union, or some other interest group can create a PAC and register it with the FEC, which will monitor the PAC's expenditures
Political contributions earmarked for party building expenses at the gross roots level for generic party advertising unlike money that goes to the campaign of a particular candidate, not subject to limits. Banned by Mccain Feingold act
A characterization of elections by political scientists meaning that they are almost universally accepted as a fair and free method of selecting political leaders.
State-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional ammendment
Removal of an elected government official from office by petition followed by voting.
A process permitted in some states where by voters may put proposed changes in the state law to a vote if sufficient signatures are obtained on a petition
The legal right to vote
The belief that one's political participation really matters- one's vote can actually make a difference
Belief that in order to support democratic government, a citizen should vote
motor voter act
1993 act that requires states to permit people to register to vote when they apply for their drivers license
Selects the president by electors usually reflects a popular majority
Theory of voting according to voters essentially making their decision based on their answers to the question, "What have you done for me lately?"
Team of men seeking to control the governing apparatus by gaining office in a duty constituted election.
A citizen's self-proclaimed preference for one party or another
Voting with one party for one office and with another party for other offices
New issues emerge, new coalitions replace old ones, majority party is displaced by minority party
Displacement of the majority party by the minority party usually during a critical election
The gradual disengagement of people from the parties, as seen in part by shrinking party identification
Electoral contenders other than the 2 major parties. 3rd parties aren't unusual, but barely win elections
Legislative seats are awarded only to the candidates who come in first
Used throughout Europe that awards seats to political parties in proportion to the number of votes won in an election.
Organization of people with shared policy goals entering the policy process at several points to try to achieve those goals. Interest groups pursue their goals in many arenas.
Interest group liberalism
Situation in which government is excessively differential to groups with virtually all pressure group demands seen as legitimate and and the job of government as to advance them all.
Sub governments are composed of interest group leaders interested in a particular policy, the government agency in charge of administering that policy, and the members of congressional committees and subcommittees handling that policy; they exercise a great deal of control over specific policy areas.
Something of value that cannot be withheld from a potential group member
For a group, the problem of people not joining because they can benefit from the groups activities without joining
Goods that a group can restrict to those who actually join
A communication by someone other than a acting on his or her own behalf, directed to a governmental decision maker with the hope of influencing his or her decision
Direct group involvement in the electoral process. For example, helping to fund campaigns, getting members to work for candidates, and forming PACs
Amicus curiae brief
Legal briefs submitted by a "friend of the court" for the purpose of influencing a court's decision by raising additional points of view and presenting information not contained in the briefs of the formal parties.
Class action suit
Lawsuits in which small number of people sue on behalf of all people in similar circumstances
Television, radio, newspapers, magazines, internet, and other means of popular communication
The use of in-depth reporting to unearth scandals, scams, and schemes, at times putting reporters in adversarial relationships with political leaders
Media programming on cable Tv or internet that is focused on a particular interest and aimed at a particular audience, in contrast to broadcasting
Intentional news leaks for the purpose of assessing the political reaction
Short video clips of approximately 10 seconds. Typically, they are all that is shown from a politician's speech on the nightly tv news
The issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and other people actively involved in politics at the time
Act of congress that funds programs
Act of congress that establishes, continues, or changes a government program or entitlement
A policy document allocating burdens (taxes) and benefits (expenditures)
Final amount of expenditures not to be exceeded for the year
Congressional budget and impoundment control act of 1974
Created a fixed timetable for establishing the budget
Created 2 budget committees in each house to help create budget each year
Created congressional budget office
Congressional budget office
Advises congress on probable consequences of its budget decisions, forecast revenues, and is counterweight to the president's Office of management and budget
Allows congress to extend last years budget until a budget resolution is made
Excess of federal expenditures over federal revenues. The government spends more than it brings in
Benefits the government must pay to people who are eligible according to federal rules. Ex: social security and medicare
What government spends most of its money on
Sum of all borrowed money
percent of what a person earns goes directly to government
Idea that last year's budget is the best predictor of the next year's budget
Program added to social security that provides health insurance for elderly
A congressional process through which program authorizations are revised to achieve required savings. It usually also includes tax or other revenue adjustments
Allowed government to collect and income tax
Social security act
Guarantees citizens 65+ monthly checks
Revenue losses that result from special exemptions or deductions allowed by federal law. Ex: mortgage interest rates
Form of mandatory spending
Hierarchical authority structure that uses task specialization, operates on the merit principle, and behaves with impersonality
System in which jobs and promotions are awarded for political reasons rather than for merit or competance
Pendleton Civil Service act
Created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage
Idea that hiring should be based on entrance exams and promotion ratings to produce administration by people with talent and skill
Federal law prohibiting government employees from active participation in partisan politics while on duty or for employees in sensitive positions at any time
Independent regulatory commission
Government agency with responsibility for making/ enforcing rules to protect the public interest. Ex: FED
Service that charges Ex: postal service
Independent executive agency
Government agencies not accounted for by cabinet departments Ex: NASA, GSA, NSF
The stage of making policy between the establishment of a policy and the consequences of the policy for the people affected. Involves translating the goals and objectives of a policy into an operating, ongoing program.
Regulations originating with the executive branch. One method the president uses to control the bureaucracy
Iron triangles (ch 15)
A mutually dependent, mutually advantageous relationship between bureaucratic agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees or subcommittees. Iron triangles dominate some areas of domestic policymaking
Explain what is meant by majority rule with minority rights
Policies made should reflect the will of over hald the voters, but the minority should still has their traditional rights such as freedom of assembly and freedom of speech
Describe recent trends in voter turnout and political participation
Older people are more likely to vote than younger people
What are th?e major components of John Locke's political philosophy
Humans have natural rights but need some form of law. Governments must provide standing laws, supreme power can't take from any man without consent
How did John Locke's philosophy influence the writings of Thomas Jefferson?
Used his theory of natural rights, and consent of the governed, limited government, and right to revolt
Describe the American Government under the Articles of Confederation and list the reasons why the Articles failed.
Ran by the states
Congress was struggling and lacked power to regulate commerce
Weak and independent government
What were the major issues at the constitutional convention and how were they resolved?
States weren't equally represented- Connecticut compromise created 2 houses
Slavery: counted slaves as 3/5 vote
Compare and contrast federalists and anti-federalists
Federalist: pro-constitution, walthy landowners, strong state government, strong central government, biill of rights isn't needed
Anti-Federalists: Anti-constitution, thought new government meant no freedom, small farmers, wanted strong state government, thought bill of rights was needed
List and explain the 5 constitutional amendments that expanded the right to vote
15th- prohibited discrimination of voters on basis of race
19th- gave women right to vote
23rd- allowed residents of DC to vote
24th- prohibited poll taxes (benefited poor)
26- lowered voting age to 18
What is the significance of the 10th amendment?
States that the national government has only those powers that the constitution specifically assigned to it. The states or people have supreme power over any activity not mentioned
What is the significance of the necessary and proper clause (elastic clause)?
Allows congress to do anything in order to carry out their constitutional duties
What contradictions appear between the supremacy clause, the tenth amendment, and the necessary and proper clause?
Supremacy clause says that the national laws overpower state laws, 10th amendment says powers not in constitution are left to the states and the people, Necessary and proper clause says congress can make any laws to carry out the constitution
Describe the general obligations that each state has to every other state under the constitution
Full faith and credit- Each state must recognize the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of all other states. Ex: marriage and drivers license
Extradition: state surrenders the criminal to the state in which they committed the crime
Privileges and immunities: Gives citizens of each state the privileges of other states
Are there any exceptions to these obligations?
Supreme court has never specified just which privileges a state must make available to all Americans and which priveleges can be limited to its own citizens Ex: students from other states pay higher tuition
How is dual federalism analogous to a layer cake and cooperative federalism analogous to a marble cake?
Dual federalism- Each layer is distinct
Cooperative federalism: mingled responsibilities and blurred distinctions between levels
Explain the two types of categorical grants
Project grants: given for specific purposes and awarded on basis of merits and applications
Formula grant: distributed according to formula specified in legislation
For what reasons might a state or locality might not want to receive federal aid?
They don't want to agree to the grant's terms
How has thee been a regional shift in the united states?
The most populous states have shifted from the t North East to the South
How has there been a graying of american and how does it affect political behavior?
Citizens over 65 are the fastest growing age group
Today's workers are having to pay more for social security
What are the 3 sources for political learning/socialization?
Family- genetics, kids pick up views from parents
Mass media- Tv, internet influences
How are polls conducted?
Only a sample of the population vote in a poll. They are randomly selcted to ensure accurate results
What is the key to accuracy of opinion polls?
List the criticisms of public polling
Makes politicians more concerned with following rather than leading
What effect does exit polling have on the election process?
Discourages many from voting and affects the outcome of some state and local races.
What do polls reveal about American's political information?
Public knowledge of politics is dismall low
Why has there been a declining trust in government?
Vietnam and watergate shook the oublic's trust, economic troubles, Iran hostage crisis
What are the general beliefs and typical demographic characteristics of liberals?
Wide scope of government, spend less on military and depend more on diplomacy, pro choice, for affirmitive action, tax rich more, spend more on poor, guard criminal rights
What are the general beliefs and typical demographic characteristics of conservatives?
smaller scope of government, use more military, pro-life, against affirmative action, free market, keep taxes and spending low
How do younger and older Americans compare on the issues?
Younger are less likely to be conservative
How would you explain why the gender gap exists?
Women have been politically and economically disadvantaged, so they're more likely to support democratic views.
How does religion influence political ideology?
Certain religions are more conservative than other
How do candidates compete for delegates
They meet the national party convention where delegates cast their votes
What's the difference between a caucus and primary?
A caucus is used to discuss presidential preference at a certain time while a primary is on a certain day where voters vote to express their preference for a party's nominee for president.
Why has there been movement of front loading?
There's so much attention paid to the early contests
What are the primary functions of the national party convention?
Bring directness and simplicity, shortened campaign, win support of delegates
What were the main features of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974?
Tightened reporting requirements for contributions and limited overall expenditures
What is the difference between hard money and soft money?
Hard money is given to a specific candidate in a specific campaign
Soft money is donated for generic campaign news (banned)
How did contributors get around the ban on soft money contributions in the McCain Feingold act?
527 groups: you can donate to 527 groups (unlimited amount of donation)
Why has there been a proliferation of PACs?
Ways for interest groups to get around campaign donation laws
What is the difference between initiative petition and a referendum?
Initiative is proposed by citizens and referendums are proposed by legislature
How was the path to nomination different for McCain and Obama in the 2008 election?
Obama and Clinton's race was close while McCain's race was wrapped up soon and decisively
How has voter registration changed throughout the years?
Voters must register before being able to vote, so voter turnout has gone down, some think registering isn't worth it
Whys turnout so low in the US compared to other countries?
Us requires registering to vvote
List and 6 demographic factors related to voter turnout
Education: Higher education=higher turnout
Age: Older people=more likely to vote
Race: Minorities=less likely to vote
Gender: Women have higher turnout
Marital status: married more likely to vote
Government employment: more likely to vote
Explain how the mandate theory affects day to day politics
Voters will vote for the candidate whos policy views they prefer
How has the influence of party identification on voting changed since the 1950s?
In the 1950s, voters voted solely based on political party, now they vote for the best person for office
What are the trends in regards to youth voters and third party candidates?
Youth voters are more likely to vote for 3rd party
Explain how the electoral college works
Electoral college elects the president. Candidate must receive majority of the electoral votes
What are battleground states and how does it affect campaigns?
States that don't have a majority vote of a single party, so both parties will battle for control. It will slow down the campaign
According to Downs, what two reasons explain why parties select widely favored policies?
Voters want to maximize the chance that policies they favor will be adopted by the government
In general, how do parties win elections?
Parties want to win office, so they select policies that are widely favored. They use accomplishments and policies to attract votes
How does American party membership differ than party membership in Europe?
You must formally join a party to be a member in Europe
What has been the most prominent trend in party identification in recent years?
People tend to fall in the middle
What are the trends for youth in party identification?
The younger one is, the more likely they are to be a political independent
How has ticket splitting affected the political environment?
No state is ever completely safe for any given party
How does party organization differ than a typical business structure and European political models?
Party organizations don't have as much power as in Europe, Candidates in US can get elected on their own
What are the differences in organization, power, etc for state parties?
National parties have a national convention, committee, and a chair person
Describe the difference between closed and open primaries.
In Closed primaries, you must be registered, while you don't have to be in an open primary. Closed primaries favor ideological purity and open allow more voters to participate
What functions do the national convention, the national committee and the national chairperson serve?
Convention- Write platform and nominate candidates
Committee- operates between conventions composed of representatives from states
Chairperson- Carries out day to day activities of national party, hire staff, raise money, and pay bills
Major party, minor party, major party coalition, minor party coalition, and president of 1796-1824
Major party- Democratic republicans
Minor party- Federalists
Major party coalition- former southerners
Minor party coalition- capitalists
Presidents- Thomas Jefferson
Major party, minor party, major party coalition, minor party coalition, and president of 1828-1856
Major party- Democrats
Minor party- Whigs
Major party coalition- Western southerners
Minor party coalition: Northern industrialists
Presidents: Andrew Jackson
Major party, minor party, major party coalition, minor party coalition, and president of 1860-1892
Major party: Republican
Minor party: democrat
Major party coalition: Northern African Americans
Minor party Coalition: Southern whites
Presidents: Abraham lincoln
Major party, minor party, major party coalition, minor party coalition, and president of 1896-1928
Major party: Republican
Minor party: Democrat
Major party coalition: city dwellers and labor unions
Minor party coalition: Southerners
Major party, minor party, major party coalition, minor party coalition, and president of 1968-present
Major party: Republican
Minor party: Democrat
Major party Coalition: Democrats
Minor party Coalition: southerns
What are the positives and negatives of a divided government?
They have a better representation of the populations different views.
Not much progress is made because the government fights over decisions
What's the trend in divided governments at the state level?
They tend to have different parties in office
What are two ways in which third parties can have an impact on American politics?
Can force more attention to certain issues
Can draw away votes from the major party
What is the most important consequence of two-party governance in the US?
Parties organization and leaders don't have control over those who run in the general election
No mechanism for a party to discipline
Name two factors that distinguish interest groups from political parties
Parties run candidates for office, interest groups just support candidates
Interest groups are policy specialists
Political parties are policy generalists
Review the differences between pluralist, hyperpluralist, and elite
Pluralists- each group balances the other out in power (equal)
Hyperpluralist- Too many groups cause chaos in government
Elitism- Elite hold power
What is the difference between a potential group and an actual group?
Potential- people interest in joining
Actual- People who actually join
What are the advantages and disadvantages of small/large groups?
Bigger- more free rider problems, small share of policy gains, effective if well organized
small- typically more effective
Why do some argue that money drives politics?
Money gives greater access to politicians
List the four general strategies used by interest groups to shape public policy
Lobbying, electioneering, litigation, and going public
List four important ways lobbyists can help a member of congress.
Important source of information
Help politicians with political strategy for setting legislation Can help formulate campaign strategy and get the group's members behind a politician's re-election campaign
Source of ideas and innovations
Why does PAC money go so overwhelmingly to incumbents?
PACs act like investments for the future
PACs give to certain candidates based on what committees they're on, their important interests, support of certain issues, and if they act in their interest
What do interest groups do if they fail to get congress to pass legislation they want?
They use litigation and go to the courts
How do interest groups go public
Appeal to certain customers, use ads
What is meant by a public interest lobby?
Lobbyists who lobby and push for the public's interest
What are the main goals of the consumer and public interest lobbies?
To get their issues on the policy agenda/ get government attention
What is a right-to-work law?
Forbids requirement that one must be in a union to hold their job
Explain how the media coverage of politics has evolved over the 20th and 21st century citing specific instances and changes
Press had a good relationship with president at first, press wouldn't cover things that the president didn't want them to, and coverage of personal life was off limits
After watergate, reporters became skeptical and cynical against politicians
Explain how the print media has evolved throughout American history
1st amendment gave power to print whatever
Started exposing government
Newspapers started becoming less popular because of rise of tv and internet
How did the emergence of radio and television affect America and politics?
Allowed politicians to connect with voters
Visual appearance can help politicians
Tv exposed government
What effect did Tv have on the war in Vietnam?
Exposed government lies about winning the war
Gave citizens first hand look of horrible war
How does the government try to regulate the electronic media?
Congress created FCE to regulate use of airwaves
FCE regulates communication via radi, tv, phone, cable, and sattelite
Used to prevent near monopolies of control over a broadcast market
How are network news broadcasts going the way of the dinosaurs?
Because cable and 24 hour news are more convienant
How has the internet affected American politics and government?
Allows citizens to access vast political info
Facilitates more communication, journalists, and politicians can communicate more readily with public
Public has more of a voice
What are the positives and negatives of private control of the media?
Positives- ability to criticize government as protected by the 1st amendment
Negative- Dependent on ads to keep business going, so they focus on attracting more viewersH
How do journalists/news outlets decide what to report?
They look at what the average viewer finds entertaining
How do sound bites affect news coverage?
Press decides what the public hears- makes it difficult for politicians to get their point across
Explain how the news media tend to be biased
Bias toward stories that will draw in the biggest audience
How does the media affect public opinion?
Hard to separate media from other influences
They alter priorities Americans attach to a circumscribed set of problems
Media emphasizes negative stories and public may not be aware of positives
How does the media affect the scope of government?
As every new policy proposal is met with media skepticism, constraints are placed on what government can do. Media serves as watch dogs to make sure government takes care of big issues
What is the difference between the "information society" and the "informed society"
Information- society has more access to info
Informed- Actually know more and use the knowledge
Describe the major sources of federal revenue
Taxes: social security and income tax
How does the federal government borrow money?
They sell bonds, government gets money now and pays later
Describe the general debate between the flat tax and progressive tax
Flat tax- people are taxed at the same rate
Progressive tax- those with more income pay higher rates
Explain how entitlements are "uncontrollable expenditures"
They're a form of mandate spending, government must pay
Explain why congress passed the congressional budget and impoundment control act of 1974 and its three major provisions
Made to reform congressional budget process
Created a fixed timetable for establishing the budget
Created 2 budget committees in each house to help create budget each year
Created congressional budget office
What are the basic elements of bureaucracy according to Max Weber?
Hierarchical authority structure
How have the methods for hiring civil service employees changed over time?
They were hired using the patronage system but are now hired based on the merit system
Headed by secretary
Each dept manages specific policy areas
Ex: department of interior oversees the nations natural resources
Independent regulatory commissions
Makes and enforces rules to protect the public interest in a particular sector of the economy, as well as judging disputes over these rules
Ex: FRB, FTC, SEC
Provide a service and charge
Ex: postal service
Independent executive agencies
Anything that doesn't fit in teh other groups
What are the main reasons for the privatization movement?
Decentralize authority within agencies to provide more room for innovation
Competition in private sectors
What are the four types of agencies in the federal bureaucracy?
Independent regulatory commissions
Independent executive agencies
What are the main arguments made for deregulation?
hurts America's competitive position
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