Geography 050 Final - UVM
Terms in this set (81)
Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
Area encircling the earth near the equator where the northeast and southeast trade winds come together. Causes frequent precipitation.
Population Concentration in Australia
91% of population (23 million) are along East/Southeast Coastline
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
Forum of 21 pacific rim countries that seeks to promote free trade and economic cooperation among member economies. It has 3 pillars: 1. trade and investment liberalization 2. Business facilitation 3. economic and technical cooperation
Regional environmental stresses (Australia/Oceana)
Mining operations, deforestation, desertification, rising sea levels, bush fires, and a drought intensified by 2015 ell nino
International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Studies effects of humans on climate change, estimate 50 cm rise in Pacific by 2100.
The case of Kiribati
Arable land will most likely be submerged by 2100 due to rising pacific sea level
Foreign family units move into a region and reproduce, aim to displace indigenous populations, then occupy land left vacant. Based upon notions of "racial superiority"
A mode of social management that emerges in the 18th century, in Europe. Regulates citizens using techniques for achieving the subjugations of bodies and the control of populations"
the applied science of the bio-social movement which advocates the use of practices aimed at improving the genetic composition of a population. Heavily promoted by governments with vested interests in controlling the future of their own populations.
White Australia Policy
various historical policies that intentionally restricted non-white immigration to Australia from 1901-1973.
Aborigines Act 1911
Provided for the custody, maintenance and education of the children of Aboriginals and to "exercise a general supervision and care over all matters affecting the well being of Aboriginals"
"The stolen generation"
Forcedly removed Aboriginal children from family to minimized mixed race people (1909-1969)
El nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
A quasi-periodic climate pattern that occurs across the tropical pacific ocean about every 5 years. 1876-1879 an ENSO caused famine killed 13 million in India, China, Brazil, and N. Africa.
Physiological distribution in South Asia
Most people fall in Northeast India and Southwest Coast. (Indus and Ganges Plains, Deltas, and Coastal Lowlands)
Agricultural techniques used in developing countries that involve new, genetically modified seeds with high yield outputs, combined with high inputs of fertilizers, irrigation techniques, and pesticides
International Poverty Line
$1.25 per day (1/3 of India is below this)
Positives of the Green Revolution
1) saved 1 billion from starvation
2) increase global food security
3) assisted spread of agricultural technologies
4) magnetization of agriculture (competition/innovation)
Criticisms of the Green Revolution
1) marketization (market enforced deregulation, focus on profit)
2) corporate influence
3) secondary economic costs (more water used, decrease biodiversity)
accumulated knowledge passed down through successive generations; not individually owned, but collectively held
scientific research that looks for useful application, process, or product in 'nature'. Discovery and commercialization of new products often from indigenous knowledge.
commercial development of naturally occurring biological materials by a technologically advanced country without fair compensation to the peoples or nations they came from (trad. knowledge)
The Case of Neem
1995 USDA and US Pharmaceutical firm (WR Grace) receive patent on extraction technique of neem oil. Indians concerned it would be extended to the properties of the tree itself. Indian government submits a legal challenge. WR Grace claims traditional Indian knowledge of properties neem had never been even published in an academic journal and thus did not amount to "prior art". May 10, 200-. the patent is revoked. Appeal lost in 2005.
Effects of the 2004 Sumatra Earthquake/Tsunami
3rd largest earthquake recorded (9.1-9.3)
Created 30m tsunamis
230,000 estimated deaths
Estimate of climate change related island induction by mid-2000s in Southeast Asia
Primary cause of regional deforestation in Southeast Asia
increase population, commercial logging due to high demand
Reasons for high RNI in Philippines
Catholicism and birth control. RNI: 2.1
(Association of Southeast Asian Nations)
Geopolitical and economic organization comprised of 10 South East Asian countries, not East Timor
An anti-communist foreign policy theory that used the idea of the domino effect to suggest that if one country fell to communism, others in neighboring region would also fall
("Red Cambodians") Pol plot from 1963-98 by a left wing extremist government in 1975-79. Regarded as deadliest regime in 20th centure, sought to rebuild a society based on agricultural ideal.
Aspects of Khmer Rouge's Social Engineering Policies
confiscate private property
close modern institution (school/hospital/factory)
relocate urban to countryside (classless society)
Aspects of Khmer Rouge's Family Policies
-children separated from parents who were 'compromised to capitalism'
-children reeducated in amps
-children taught torture techniques (on animals)
-children given leadership in torture/execution of state enemies (ie their parents)
Tuol Sleng Detention Centre (S-21)
Site of systematic torture in Cambodia. of the 17,000 that passed through its gates between 1975-79, only 12 survived.
Estimated Death Toll Under Khmer Rouge
Between 1.4 - 2.2 million.
Percentage of world emissions within the territory of China
23.5% (Approximately 7 billion tons per year)
Rate of China's Oil Consumption/day
9.4 million bbl/day (2nd largest in the world)
Accumulation by Dispossession
A process which wealth and power are centralized in the hands of the few by dispossessing individuals of their wealth and land. Applies to energy. Suck value out of land, leave what's left (of no value), further separates core and periphery
Percent of Global Emissions that support consumption in countries other than where they were emitted
Percentage of global carbon emissions from fossil fuel combustion that contribute to capital accumulation in countries other than where the emissions occured
Economic growth in the core corresponds to economic decline in the periphery. Environmental improvements in the core correspond to environmental degradation in the periphery. In time, nobody wins, but some will lose faster than others.
An indigenous inhabitant of Australia
Indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand
Usually independent states that are small in both area and population
Native Title Bill
Australian legislation signed in 1993 that provides Aborigines with enhanced legal rights over land and resources within the country.
Major world subregion; includes New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia.
Australia's large, generally dry, and thinly settled interior.
Grape cultivation, usually for the purpose of making wine
British East India Company
Private trade organization with its own army that acted as an arm of Britain in monopolizing trade in South Asia until 1857, when it was abolished and replaced by full governmental control
Complex division of South Asian society into different hierarchically ranked hereditary groups. Most explicit in Hindu society.
The so-called untouchable population of India. People often considered socially polluting because of their historical connections with occupations classified as unclean, such as leather working and latrine-cleaning.
A contemporary "fundamentalist" religious and political movement that promotes Hindu values as the essential and exclusive fabric of Indian society. As a political movement, it generally has less tolerance of India's large Muslim minority than other political movements.
The historical and contemporary movement of people from India to other countries in search of better opportunities.
The promotion of one language over others that is, in turn, linked to shared nations of political identity.
Historical term for Hindu royalty, usually king or prince, who ruled specific areas of South Asia before independence, but who was usually subject to overrule by British colonial advisers
The seasonal pattern of changes in winds, heat, and moisture in South Asia and other regions of the world that is a product of larger meteorological forces of land and water heating, produces distinct wet and dry seasons
The Muslim dominated state that covered most of South Asia from the early 16th to late 17th Centuries. Dissolved by 1857
The common name of the rebel forces in Sri Lanka that fought the Sri Lankan army from 1983 until their defeat in 2009.
A system in which close friends of a political leader are either legally or illegally given business advantages in return for their political support
An area of northern Thailand, Burma and Laos that is known as a major source region for heroin and is plugged into the global drug trade.
Massive urban settlements that dominate all other cities in a given country. A primate city is usually the capital of the country in which it is located
Migrant farmers who are either transplanted by government relocation schemes or forced to move on their own when their lands are expropriated
An extension of the continental shelf from the Southeast Asia mainland to the large islands of Indonesia. Because of the shelf, the overlying sea is generally shallow (less than 200 ft deep)
The planned, government-sponsored relocation of people from one area to another within a state territory. This term is usually associated with Indonesia
Landscapes that have been heavily transformed by humans
Central Place Theory
A theory used to explain the distribution of cities, and the relationships between different cities, based on retail marketing.
The scattering of a particular group of people over a vast geographical area. Originally Jews
The traditional Chinese and Korean practice of designing buildings in accordance with the principles of cosmic harmony and discord that supposedly course through the local topography.
A writing system in which each symbol represents a concept instead of a sound.
An economic system in which the state has minimal involvement and in which market forces largely guide economic activity
A member of the high-level bureaucracy of Imperial China (before 1911). Mandarin Chinese is the official spoken language of the country and is the native tongue of the vast majority of people living in the north, central, and southwestern China
A term referring to the political philosophy developed by Karl Marx in the 1800s and based on the ideas of Communism
The process of exporting industrial pollution and other waste material to other countries. Pollution exporting can be direct, as when waste is simply shipped abroad for disposal, or indirect, as when highly polluting factories are constructed abroad.
Special Economic Zones (SEZs)
Relatively small districts in China that were fully open to global capitalism after China began to reform its economy in the 1980s
A massive urban agglomeration that results from the coalescing of two or more formerly separate metropolitan areas.
The situation found in a country in which a disproportionately large city, such as London, Seoul, or Bangkok, dominates the urban system and is the center of economic, political, and cultural life.
China's "One Child Policy"
Officially restricted married, urban couples to having only one child. Did it for economic growth and available labor. Phased out in 2015, families can now have 2.
China's Farm Output Ranking
#1 in rankings ($1 trillion)
Reasons for high agricultural import activity in Japan, S. Korea, and Taiwan
Due to population/urban demands
China's economic trends in the last 30 years
Fastest growing economy, with 10% growth rates over the last 30 years. Current economy is ranked 2nd largest behind USA.
4 major environmental issues facing East Asia
2) soil erosions
4) Rivine and Coastal Pollution
Largest electronic waste site on earth. 100 tuck loads/day dump waste into a 52 sq km area. Health impacts- 150 thousand e waste workers. 88% suffer from neurological, respiratory, or digestive abnormalities, or skin diseases. Above average miscarriage rates and high percentage of lead in the blood of local children. Environmental impacts- Bioaccumulation of heavy metals, polluted water, river water is undrinkable, and agriculture is impossible due to pollution.
Review disproportionately small share of global wealth. Weak state institutions. Often exploited by more powerful (developed) countries.
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