Biology Fall Semester Study Guide- Chapter 6+7
Terms in this set (56)
What six elements make up most of the human body?
oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus
Is water polar or nonpolar?
What is the difference between a mixture and a solution?
a mixture is a substance made of other substances that are mixed but not joined together, while a solution is a substance made of two or more substances that do join together
What are the reactants and products in a chemical reaction?
reactants are what are combined to make the products
products are an end result of the reactants
What are the main parts of an atom and where are they found?
Electrons- found in the outer shell of an atom
Protons and neutrons- found in the nucleus of an atom
Enzymes are a type of ______.
Two atoms that share electrons are held together by ______ bonds.
What are the four macromolecules?
The basic building blocks of proteins are ______.
What is an electron cloud?
where electrons are when they go around the nucleus of an atom
How many electrons can a carbon atom share?
How many electrons can fit in each of the first three energy levels?
What is the difference between reactants and products in a chemical reaction?
the reactants are changed into the products
Which of the following can have a cell wall: plants, fungi, bacteria, animals
plants, fungi, bacteria
What is dynamic equilibrium?
a state of balance between continuing processes
How can you tell if an atom is likely to form an ion?
if they don't have complete outer electron rings they're likely to form an ion
What is Brownian motion?
The random movement of microscopic particles suspended in a liquid or gas, caused by collisions with molecules of the surrounding medium
Diffusion continues until there is no _______.
An atom of fluorine has 9 electrons. Its second energy level has _______ electrons.
Carbon-12, carbon-13, and carbon-14 are _______.
A plasma membrane is made up of a(n) _______ bilayer.
What is selective permeability?
A selectively permeable cell membrane is one that allows certain molecules or ions to pass through it by means of active or passive transport
What is osmosis?
is the process where particles diffuse over a semi-permeable membrane from a lower concentration to a higher concentration
How many layers of phospholipids are in the plasma membrane?
In a chloroplast, the stacks of membranous sacs are called ________.
What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
eukaryotes have a nucleus; prokaryotes don't
Who was the scientist who first described living cells as seen through a simple microscope?
Who was the scientist who made the first compound microscope and who devised the word "cell"?
All living things are made up of _______.
Who concluded that all plants are made of living cells?
Matthias Jakob Schleiden
Who concluded that all animals are made of living cells?
Describe the motion phospholipids make in a plasma membrane.
They move somewhat like a liquid. The move throught the membrane but stick together
What structures are found in a plant cell, but not in an animal cell?
Plant cells have a cell wall, chloroplasts and other specialized plastids, and a large central vacuole
What structures are found in prokaryotic cells?
a plasma membrane
genetic material (RNA and DNA)
Which organelle sorts and transports substances?
Which structure of the cell maintains homeostasis?
Which organelle is the cell control center?
Which organelle makes ribosomes?
Which organelle digests substances?
Which organelle is for temporary storage?
Which organelle produces energy in the form of ATP?
What is the difference between smooth endoplasmic reticulum and rough endoplasmic reticulum?
rough ER has ribosomes attached to its surface
Which organelle is the site of protein synthesis?
What is the total number of atoms in a molecule C6H12O6?
List the 3 main ideas of the cell theory.
All known living things are made up of one or more cells. All living cells arise from preexisting cells by division.
The cell is the fundamental unit of structure and function in all living organisms.
In plants, the structure that transforms light energy into chemical energy is called ______.
What is metabolism?
the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life
What is a peptide bond?
a covalent chemical bond linking two consecutive amino acid monomers along a peptide or protein chain
What is a hypotonic solution?
What is a hypertonic solution?
What is an isotonic solution?
is made up of two or more substances and has the same concentration as the blood or cells in the body
What is diffusion?
the action of molecules moving from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration
What is passive transport?
a movement of biochemicals and other atomic or molecular substances across cell membranes without need of energy input
What is active transport?
he movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energy.
What is the difference between endocytosis and exocytosis?
endocytosis- substance or particles ENTERING the cell
exocytosis- substance or particles EXITING the cell
The structure most responsible for maintaining cell homeostasis is the _____.