what is the term for metabolic pathways that release stored energy by breaking down complex molecules?
why does the oxidation of organic compounds by molecular oxygen to produce CO2 and water release free energy?
electrons are being moved from atoms that have a lower affinity for electrons (such as C) to atoms wtih a higher affinity for electrons (such as O)
which of the following statements describes the results of this reaction? c6h12o6+6 o2---> 6 CO2 +6H20 +energy
c6h12o6 is oxidized and o2 is reduced
when a molecule of NADP+ gains a hydrogen atom, the molecule becomes
which of the following statements describes NAD+
NAD+ is reduced to NADH during glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, and the citric acid cycle
where does glycolysis take place in eukaryotic cells?
the ATP made during glycolysis is generated by
substrate- level phosphorylation
the oxygen sonsumed during cellular respiration is involved directly in which process or event?
accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain
in addition to ATP, what are the end products of glycolysis
NADH and pyruvate
starting with one molecule of glucose, the energy-containing products of glycolysis are
2 NADH, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP
in glycolysis, for each molecule of glucose oxidized to pyruvate
two molecules of ATP are used and four molecules of ATP are produced
why is glycolysis described as having an investment phase and a pay off phase
it uses stored ATP and then forms a net increase in ATP
which of the following intermediary metabolites enters the citric acid cycle and is formed, in part, by the removal of a carbon (CO2) from one molecule of pyruvate
how many carbon atoms are fed into the citric acid cycle as a result of the oxidation of one molecule of pyruvate?
carbon dioxide is released during which of the following states of cellular respiration
oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and the citric acid cycle
during aerobic respiration, electrong travel downhill in which sequence?
food>NADH>electron transport chain> oxygen
where are the proteins of the electron transport chain located?
mitochondrial inner membrane
the primary role of oxygen in cellular respiration is to
act as an acceptor for electrons and hydrogen
inside an active mitochondrion, most electrons follow which pathway?
citrtic acid cycle>NADH> electron transport chain>oxygen
during aerobic respiration, H20 is formed. where does the oxygen atom for the formation of the water come from?
molecular oxygen (O2)
when hydrogen ions are pumped from the mitochondrial matrix across the inner membrane and into the intermembranespace, the result is the
creation of a proton-motive force
how many oxygen molecules (O2) are required each time a molecule of glucose (c6h12o6) is completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water via aerobic respiration?
which of the following produces the most ATP when glucose is completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water
the synthesis of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation, using the energy released by movement of protons across the membrane down their electrochemical gradient, is an example of
an endergonic reaction coupled to an exergonic reaction
if a cell is able to synthesize 30 ATP molecules for each molecule of glucose completely oxidized by carbon dioxide and water, how many ATP molecules can the cell synthesize for each molecule of pyruvate oxidized to carbon dioxide and water
in liver cells, the inner mitochondrial membranes are about 5 times the area of the outer mitochondrial membranes. What purpose must this serve?
it increases the surface for oxidative phosphorylation
which catabolic process may have been used by cells on ancient Earth before free oxygen became available
glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, the citric acid cycle, tand oxidative phosphorylation, using an electron acceptor other than oxygen
in the absence of oxygen, yeast cells can obtain energy by fermentation, resulting in the production of
ATP, CO2, AND ethyl alcohol
which statement best supports the hjypothesis that glycolysis is an ancient metabolic pathway that originated before the last universal common ancestor of life on earth?
glycolysis is widespread and is found in the domains bacteria, archea, and eukarya
you have a friend who lost 7kg of fat on a regiment of strict diet and exercise. how did the fat leave her body
it was released as CO2 and H2O
the chemical reaction for phoyosynthesis is 6 CO2 +12 H2O +light energy --> c6h12o6 + 6 o2 + 6 H2O
during the light reactions of photosynthesis, water is split, removnig electrong and protons, and oxygen gas is released
experimental evidence shows that the process of glycolysis is present and citrually identical in organisms from all three domains, archea, bacteria, and eukarya. which of the following hypotheses could be best supported by this evidence
glycolysis is a universal energy releasing process and therefore suggests a common ancestor for all forms of life
what is the relationship between wavelength of light and the quantity of energy per photon?
they are inversely related
which of the following are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilized in the calvin cycle
ATP and NADPH
where does the calvin cycle take place
stroma and chloroplast
in any ecosystem, terrestrial or aquatic, what group is always necessary
when oxygen is released as a result of photosynthesis, it is a direct by product of
splitting water molecules
a plant has a unique photosynthetic pigment. the least of this plant appear to be reddish yellow. what wavelenghts of visible light are being absorbed by this pigment
blue and violet
which of the events listed below occurs in the light reactions of photosynthesis
light is absorbed and funneled to reaction-center chlorophyll a
which statement describes the functioning of photosystem II
the electron vacancies in P680 are filled by electrons derived from water
what are the products of linear photophosphorylation
ATP and NADPH
what does the chemiosmotic process in chloroplasts involve
establishment of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane
in a plant cell, where are the ATP synthase complexes located
thylakoid membrane and inner mitochondrial membrane
which of the following statements best describes the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration
photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules, whereas respiration releases it
where are the molecules of the electron transport chain found in plant cells
thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts
reduction of oxygen to form water occurs during
reduction of NADP+ occurs during
generation of proton gradients across membranes occurs during
both photosynthesis and respiration
the reactions that produce molecular oxygen take place in
the light reactions alone
what is the primary function of the calvin cycle
synthesize simple sugars from carbon dioxide
the NADPH required for the calvin cycle comes from
reactions initiated in photosystem I
reactions that require CO2 take place in
the calvin cycle alone
which of the follownig statements best represents the relationships between the light reaction and the calvin cycle
the light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the calvin cycle, and the cycle returns ADP, Pi and NADP+ the the light reactions
the pH of the inner thylakiod space has been measure, as have the pH of the stroma and of the cytosol of a particular plant cell. Which, if any, relationship would you expect to find?
the pH within the thylakoid is less than that of the stroma
compared to C3 plants, C4 plants
can continue to fix CO2 even at relatively low CO2 concentration and high oxygen
if the atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase twofold or more, how will plants be affected, disregarding any changes in climate?
c3 plants will have faster growth; c4 plants will be minimally affected
(picture) whows the abosrption spectrum for chlorophyll a and the action spectrum for photosynthesis, why are they different
other pigments absorb light in addition to chlorophyll a
what wavelength of light in the figure is most effective in driving photosynthesis