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what is the term for metabolic pathways that release stored energy by breaking down complex molecules?

catabolic pathways

why does the oxidation of organic compounds by molecular oxygen to produce CO2 and water release free energy?

electrons are being moved from atoms that have a lower affinity for electrons (such as C) to atoms wtih a higher affinity for electrons (such as O)

which of the following statements describes the results of this reaction?
c6h12o6+6 o2---> 6 CO2 +6H20 +energy

c6h12o6 is oxidized and o2 is reduced

when a molecule of NADP+ gains a hydrogen atom, the molecule becomes


which of the following statements describes NAD+

NAD+ is reduced to NADH during glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, and the citric acid cycle

where does glycolysis take place in eukaryotic cells?


the ATP made during glycolysis is generated by

substrate- level phosphorylation

the oxygen sonsumed during cellular respiration is involved directly in which process or event?

accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain

in addition to ATP, what are the end products of glycolysis

NADH and pyruvate

starting with one molecule of glucose, the energy-containing products of glycolysis are

2 NADH, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP

in glycolysis, for each molecule of glucose oxidized to pyruvate

two molecules of ATP are used and four molecules of ATP are produced

why is glycolysis described as having an investment phase and a pay off phase

it uses stored ATP and then forms a net increase in ATP

which of the following intermediary metabolites enters the citric acid cycle and is formed, in part, by the removal of a carbon (CO2) from one molecule of pyruvate

acetyl COa

how many carbon atoms are fed into the citric acid cycle as a result of the oxidation of one molecule of pyruvate?


carbon dioxide is released during which of the following states of cellular respiration

oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and the citric acid cycle

during aerobic respiration, electrong travel downhill in which sequence?

food>NADH>electron transport chain> oxygen

where are the proteins of the electron transport chain located?

mitochondrial inner membrane

the primary role of oxygen in cellular respiration is to

act as an acceptor for electrons and hydrogen

inside an active mitochondrion, most electrons follow which pathway?

citrtic acid cycle>NADH> electron transport chain>oxygen

during aerobic respiration, H20 is formed. where does the oxygen atom for the formation of the water come from?

molecular oxygen (O2)

when hydrogen ions are pumped from the mitochondrial matrix across the inner membrane and into the intermembranespace, the result is the

creation of a proton-motive force

how many oxygen molecules (O2) are required each time a molecule of glucose (c6h12o6) is completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water via aerobic respiration?


which of the following produces the most ATP when glucose is completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water

oxidative phosphorylation

the synthesis of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation, using the energy released by movement of protons across the membrane down their electrochemical gradient, is an example of

an endergonic reaction coupled to an exergonic reaction

if a cell is able to synthesize 30 ATP molecules for each molecule of glucose completely oxidized by carbon dioxide and water, how many ATP molecules can the cell synthesize for each molecule of pyruvate oxidized to carbon dioxide and water


in liver cells, the inner mitochondrial membranes are about 5 times the area of the outer mitochondrial membranes. What purpose must this serve?

it increases the surface for oxidative phosphorylation

which catabolic process may have been used by cells on ancient Earth before free oxygen became available

glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, the citric acid cycle, tand oxidative phosphorylation, using an electron acceptor other than oxygen

in the absence of oxygen, yeast cells can obtain energy by fermentation, resulting in the production of

ATP, CO2, AND ethyl alcohol

which statement best supports the hjypothesis that glycolysis is an ancient metabolic pathway that originated before the last universal common ancestor of life on earth?

glycolysis is widespread and is found in the domains bacteria, archea, and eukarya

you have a friend who lost 7kg of fat on a regiment of strict diet and exercise. how did the fat leave her body

it was released as CO2 and H2O

the chemical reaction for phoyosynthesis is 6 CO2 +12 H2O +light energy --> c6h12o6 + 6 o2 + 6 H2O

during the light reactions of photosynthesis, water is split, removnig electrong and protons, and oxygen gas is released

experimental evidence shows that the process of glycolysis is present and citrually identical in organisms from all three domains, archea, bacteria, and eukarya. which of the following hypotheses could be best supported by this evidence

glycolysis is a universal energy releasing process and therefore suggests a common ancestor for all forms of life

what is the relationship between wavelength of light and the quantity of energy per photon?

they are inversely related

which of the following are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilized in the calvin cycle


where does the calvin cycle take place

stroma and chloroplast

in any ecosystem, terrestrial or aquatic, what group is always necessary


when oxygen is released as a result of photosynthesis, it is a direct by product of

splitting water molecules

a plant has a unique photosynthetic pigment. the least of this plant appear to be reddish yellow. what wavelenghts of visible light are being absorbed by this pigment

blue and violet

which of the events listed below occurs in the light reactions of photosynthesis

light is absorbed and funneled to reaction-center chlorophyll a

which statement describes the functioning of photosystem II

the electron vacancies in P680 are filled by electrons derived from water

what are the products of linear photophosphorylation


what does the chemiosmotic process in chloroplasts involve

establishment of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane

in a plant cell, where are the ATP synthase complexes located

thylakoid membrane and inner mitochondrial membrane

which of the following statements best describes the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration

photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules, whereas respiration releases it

where are the molecules of the electron transport chain found in plant cells

thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts

reduction of oxygen to form water occurs during

respiration only

reduction of NADP+ occurs during


generation of proton gradients across membranes occurs during

both photosynthesis and respiration

the reactions that produce molecular oxygen take place in

the light reactions alone

what is the primary function of the calvin cycle

synthesize simple sugars from carbon dioxide

the NADPH required for the calvin cycle comes from

reactions initiated in photosystem I

reactions that require CO2 take place in

the calvin cycle alone

which of the follownig statements best represents the relationships between the light reaction and the calvin cycle

the light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the calvin cycle, and the cycle returns ADP, Pi and NADP+ the the light reactions

the pH of the inner thylakiod space has been measure, as have the pH of the stroma and of the cytosol of a particular plant cell. Which, if any, relationship would you expect to find?

the pH within the thylakoid is less than that of the stroma

compared to C3 plants, C4 plants

can continue to fix CO2 even at relatively low CO2 concentration and high oxygen

if the atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase twofold or more, how will plants be affected, disregarding any changes in climate?

c3 plants will have faster growth; c4 plants will be minimally affected

(picture) whows the abosrption spectrum for chlorophyll a and the action spectrum for photosynthesis, why are they different

other pigments absorb light in addition to chlorophyll a

what wavelength of light in the figure is most effective in driving photosynthesis


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