Chapter 53

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Community
All of the populations in a particular area at a specific time.
Interspecific Interactions
An organism's interactions with other species in the community.
Interspecific competition
Species competing for resources. (-,-), competitive exclusion states that one species must outcompete the other in a particular niche, so there can ONLY BE ONE!
Ecological niche
The sum total of a species' use of the biotic and abiotic resources in its environment.
Resource Partitioning
Competition drives species with overlapping niches to adapt to non-overlapping resource pools.
Character Displacement
Competing populations are more divergent in adaptive characteristics than non-competing populations of the same species.
Predation
+/- interaction between species in which one species kills and eats the other.
Cryptic coloration
Camouflage
Aposematic colouration
Warning colouration for poison or mimicry of poison.
Batesian mimicry
Mimicking of the colouring of poisonous stuff for advantage.
Mullerian mimicry
Poisonous species mimic each other, IE bees and wasps.
Herbivory
(+/-) when a herbivore eats part of a plant or alga, not killing the plant.
Parasitism
(+/-) Parasite derives it's nourishment from the host. Inside the body they're called endoparasites, outside ectoparasites. Parasitoidism is where animals - like wasps - lay eggs on living hosts.
Mutualism
Both species benefit, +,+
Commensalism
+, 0, one benefits the the other has no effect.
Coevolution
Reciprocal evolutionary adaptations of two interacting species.
Species diversity
Variety of species, IE how different on average trees are from each other.
Species richness
Number of species. Doesn't matter if there is one fern amongst a million eucalyptus trees.
Food Webs
Carrot >>> Bunny >>> Eagle >>> Steve
Energetic hypothesis
Food chains lose about 10% of energy transferred per trophic level, so large chains are hard to maintain because of low energy abundance.
Dynamic stability hypothesis
Longer food chains are less stable than short food chains.
Dominant species
species in the community that are the most abundant or have the most biomass.
Invasive species
Species, generally introduced by humans, taking hold outside of their natural range.
Keystone species
Species key to maintaining ecosystem balance, and species diversity.
Facilitators
Species that have positive effects on the survival and reproduction on survival + reproduction of some other species in an ecosystem.
Bottom-up model
Influence extends from the bottom of the food chain with energy.
Top-down model
Predators limit population of those below them, so they influence the entire chain.
Intermediate disturbance hypothesis
Moderate levels of disturbance can create conditions that foster greater species diversity than low or high levels of disturbance.
Succession
Disturbed area being colonized by waves of species.
Primary Succession
No soil.
Secondary Succession
Soil.
Evapotranspiration
The evaporation of water from soil plus the transpiration of water from plants. More water >>> Easier life >>> More species diversity.
Species-area curve
If you can't figure this one out, you're an IDIOT!
Integrated hypothesis of community
Assembly of interdependent organisms closely linked with each other. Graphs show lines going up and down at more or less the same points of an environmental gradient.
Individualistic hypothesis
Chance assembly of different species. Lines don't rise or fall with each other, seems like chance.
Rivet model
Most species are closely associated with at least one other species, fits like a rivet.
Redundancy model
Not tightly associated with each other, increase or decrease in population of a particular species doesn't affect the others much.
Island conditions
Larger islands are better, needs to be near the mainland. Most diversity under these conditions.