Chapter 54 + 55

Consists of all the organisms living in a community, as well as the abiotic factors with which they interact. Regardless of size, its dynamics involve energy flow and chemical cycling ENERGY FLOWS TO ENTROPY, CHEMICALS CYCLE
Break down dead stuff, fungi and microorganisms.
Primary Producers
Producers, plants.
Primary Consumers
Consume Producers.
Secondary consumers
Carnivores that eat Primary Consumers.
Primary Production
Amount of light energy converted to chemical energy by autotrophs in a given time period. (GPP)
Global Energy Budget
The amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface limits photosynthetic output of ecosystems.
Gross Primary Production
Total primary production.
Net Primary Production
GPP - R (energy used for respiration)
Limiting Nutrient
Nutrient that limits the development of an ecosystem.
Overnutrification of a body of water causes algae to grow really fast, depriving the ecosystem of oxygen and causing the entire body of water to become devoid of oxygen, and therefore life.
Actual evapotranspiration
Annual amount of water transpired by plants and evaporated from a landscape, usually measured in millimetres.
Energetic Hypothesis
10% of energy is passed between trophic levels.
Trophic Efficiency
Percentage of production trasnferred from one trophic level to the next. Usually 10%
Turnover time
Time to recreate resources, IE in phytoplankton having less biomass than the other trophic levels despite being the producer because of its short turnover time.
Green world hypothesis
Proposes several factors that keep herbivores from eating all plants:

1. Plants have defences against herbivores.

2. Nutrients, not energy, limits herbivores.

3. Abiotic factors limit herbivores, such as temperature changes etc.

4. Intraspecific competition limit herbivores. IE Territorial disputes etc.

5. Interspecific interactions limit herbivores. IE Predators, disease and parasites.
See drawings in folder.
Restoration ecology
Applies ecological principles in an effort to restore degraded ecosystems.
Endangered speicies
One in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range.
Threatened species
Considered likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future.
Ecosystem services
All the processes through which natural ecosystems and the species that contain help sustain human life on earth.
Four major threats to biodiversity
Habitat Destruction, Indtroduced SPecies, Overexploitation and Disruption of Interaction networks (IE all plants go extinct, so therefore all of the grass eaters go extinct too.
Extinction vortex
Interbreeding and genetirc drift in a small population that draw populations to extinction.
Minimum Viable Population
Minimum population to sustain a species by reproducing and surviving
Population viability analysis
Analaysis of population viability.
Movement corridor
Area to connect habitats, on highways they sometimes
Sustainable development
The idea of long term development that aids the ecosystems that support it.