Polar, positive end and negative end, electronegativity, H-bonds to itself, cohesion, adhesion, surface tension, solid is less dense than the liquid, specific heat, high heat of vaporisation, excellent solvent for polar molecules.
Water attracts itself well
Water attracts other things well
Because of cohesion, water molecules attract each other a lot.
When the solute is separated from itself, surrounded by hydration shells.
pH + pOH equations
pH=-log[H+], pOH=-log[OH-], pH=14-pOH
When pH is regulated. IE Phosphoric acid, H3PO4, takes on more hydrogens when acidic, releases more hydrogens when basic.
Same chemical formula, different structure.
Mirror images of each other, but not the same. EG Thalidomide, responsible for horrible horrible defects when the enantiomer of the drug caused adverse side affects.
Energy of movement
Measure of the total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter.
intensity of heat due to the average kinetic energy of the molecules.
the amount of heat the amuse be absorbed or lost for 1 g of that substance to change its temperature one degree celsius.
amount of heat to raise 1g of water 1 C.
Heat of vaporisation
quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1g of it to be converted from the liquid to the gaseous state.
Hottest molecules evaporate, resulting in a net cooling of a body of liquid. IE sweat.
Why is ice less dense than water
h-bonding causes crystalline structure to form, which in turn causes less density than liquid water.
Ring of water molecules around dissolved ions.
Stable suspension of fine particles in aliquot.
Isomers like left and right hands. Breaking Bad, one is horrible birth defects, the other is harmless.
Endings to carbon chains.
called ketone if it's in the middle of a chain, called a acetone if at the end with a hydrogen
-C=O l OH
-N-H l H
Long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds.
Reaction in which two monomers are connected through the loss of a molecule. With respect to water, this is called dehydration synthesis.
The disassembly of polymers into monomers through splitting water.
Sugars and polymers of sugars. Consist of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
Simple sugars, have the empirical formula CH2O, have a 1:2:1 ratio of C:H:O. Most important example is glucose, which is key to the chemistry of life. Depending on the location of the carbonyl group, the sugar is either an aldose (aldehyde, end of chain sugar) or a ketose (ketone, middle of chain sugar). Also, triose sugars have 3 carbons, pentose sugars have 5 carbons, and hexose sugars have 6 carbons.
two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage, which is essentially a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration synthesis reaction.
Polymeric sugars with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages. Some serve as energy storage units, which are hydrolysed as energy is needed. Others serve structural functions.
A storage polysaccharide of plants consisting of glucose monomers. Formed through 1-4 linkages (1 carbon to 4 carbon). Is helical, and simplest form is unbranched. A more complex version, Amylopectin, is branched with 1-6 linkages at the branch points. Stored in granule in cellular structures called plastids.
Animal storage polysaccharide, like amylopectin but more extensively branched.
Glucose + Glucose
Glucose + Fructose
1-4 linkage of alpha glucose
1-4 linkage of beta glucose molecules.
constructed from glycerol and fatty acids.
long carbon skeleton with a carboxyl group on one end.
fat with three fatty acids and glycerol.
all single bonds
not all single bonds
two fatty acids and a hydrophilic head attached to a glycerol molecule. Form phospholipid bilayer for membranes in cells.
Lipids with four fused carbon rings.
Steroid which is a common component of animal membranes.
proteins that regulate metabolism by acting as catalysts.
transport of other substances
coordination of activities
response to chemical stimuli
contractile and motor proteins
protection against disease
polymers of amino acids
one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into specific conformations.
organic molecules, with a carbon connected to a hydrogen, a carboxyl group, an amine group and an R group. there are 20 different types of them in humans.
Structure of protein
primary = amino acid types, secondary = H bonds forming beta pleated sheets or alpha helices. Tertiary structure is the structure resulting from reaction between r groups. Quaternary structure is the overall structure of the protein once all of the polypeptides are combined.
further reinforcing of the tertiary structure of a protein through sulphydryl groups forming a bridge (-S-S-).
unravelling of proteins
proteins that help fold other proteins.
DNA + RNA differences
DNA = double stranded helix, RNA = single strand. Ribose = RNA, deoxyribose = DNA
Amino acid chain
H-bonding chains. Cause alpha helixes and beta pleated sheets.
Interactions between R-groups.
Addition of polypeptides to each other to make a protein.
Adenine and Guanine are Purines (two rings), Thymine and Cytosine are Pyramidines.
Contain a pentose sugar, a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group. In RNA, ribose is sugar and ACUG can be the sugars. In DNA, deoxyribose is sugar and ACTG can be the sugars. In ATP, ribose is sugar, adenine is the nitrogenous base and there are three phosphate groups attached.