Chapters 3-5 Notes

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Water
Polar, positive end and negative end, electronegativity, H-bonds to itself, cohesion, adhesion, surface tension, solid is less dense than the liquid, specific heat, high heat of vaporisation, excellent solvent for polar molecules.
Cohesion
Water attracts itself well
Adhesion
Water attracts other things well
Surface tension
Because of cohesion, water molecules attract each other a lot.
Dissolving
When the solute is separated from itself, surrounded by hydration shells.
pH + pOH equations
pH=-log[H+], pOH=-log[OH-], pH=14-pOH
Buffering
When pH is regulated. IE Phosphoric acid, H3PO4, takes on more hydrogens when acidic, releases more hydrogens when basic.
Isomers
Same chemical formula, different structure.
Enantiomers
Mirror images of each other, but not the same. EG Thalidomide, responsible for horrible horrible defects when the enantiomer of the drug caused adverse side affects.
Kinetic energy
Energy of movement
Heat
Measure of the total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter.
Temperature
intensity of heat due to the average kinetic energy of the molecules.
Specific heat
the amount of heat the amuse be absorbed or lost for 1 g of that substance to change its temperature one degree celsius.
Calorie
amount of heat to raise 1g of water 1 C.
Heat of vaporisation
quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1g of it to be converted from the liquid to the gaseous state.
Evaporative cooling
Hottest molecules evaporate, resulting in a net cooling of a body of liquid. IE sweat.
Why is ice less dense than water
h-bonding causes crystalline structure to form, which in turn causes less density than liquid water.
Hydration shell
Ring of water molecules around dissolved ions.
Colloid
Stable suspension of fine particles in aliquot.
Enantiomers
Isomers like left and right hands. Breaking Bad, one is horrible birth defects, the other is harmless.
Functional Groups
Endings to carbon chains.
Hydroxyl
-OH, polar
Carbonyl
-C=O
l

called ketone if it's in the middle of a chain, called a acetone if at the end with a hydrogen
Carboxyl
-C=O
l
OH
Amino
-N-H
l
H
Sulfhydryl
-S-H
Macromolecule
giant molecule
Polymer
Long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds.
Condensation reaction
Reaction in which two monomers are connected through the loss of a molecule. With respect to water, this is called dehydration synthesis.
Hydrolysis
The disassembly of polymers into monomers through splitting water.
Carbohydrates
Sugars and polymers of sugars. Consist of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
Monosaccharides
Simple sugars, have the empirical formula CH2O, have a 1:2:1 ratio of C:H:O. Most important example is glucose, which is key to the chemistry of life. Depending on the location of the carbonyl group, the sugar is either an aldose (aldehyde, end of chain sugar) or a ketose (ketone, middle of chain sugar). Also, triose sugars have 3 carbons, pentose sugars have 5 carbons, and hexose sugars have 6 carbons.
Disaccharide
two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage, which is essentially a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration synthesis reaction.
Polysaccharides
Polymeric sugars with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages. Some serve as energy storage units, which are hydrolysed as energy is needed. Others serve structural functions.
Starch
A storage polysaccharide of plants consisting of glucose monomers. Formed through 1-4 linkages (1 carbon to 4 carbon). Is helical, and simplest form is unbranched. A more complex version, Amylopectin, is branched with 1-6 linkages at the branch points. Stored in granule in cellular structures called plastids.
Glycogen
Animal storage polysaccharide, like amylopectin but more extensively branched.
Glucose + Glucose
Maltose
Glucose + Fructose
Sucrose
Starch
1-4 linkage of alpha glucose
Cellulose
1-4 linkage of beta glucose molecules.
fat
constructed from glycerol and fatty acids.
fatty acid
long carbon skeleton with a carboxyl group on one end.
triacylgycerol
fat with three fatty acids and glycerol.
saturated fat
all single bonds
unsaturated fat
not all single bonds
phospholipid
two fatty acids and a hydrophilic head attached to a glycerol molecule. Form phospholipid bilayer for membranes in cells.
steroids
Lipids with four fused carbon rings.
cholesterol
Steroid which is a common component of animal membranes.
enzymes
proteins that regulate metabolism by acting as catalysts.
structural protein
support structures
transport protein
transport of other substances
Hormonal protein
coordination of activities
Receptor protein
response to chemical stimuli
contractile and motor proteins
movement
defensive proteins
protection against disease
polypeptide
polymers of amino acids
protein
one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into specific conformations.
Amino acids
organic molecules, with a carbon connected to a hydrogen, a carboxyl group, an amine group and an R group. there are 20 different types of them in humans.
Structure of protein
primary = amino acid types, secondary = H bonds forming beta pleated sheets or alpha helices. Tertiary structure is the structure resulting from reaction between r groups. Quaternary structure is the overall structure of the protein once all of the polypeptides are combined.
Disulphide bridges
further reinforcing of the tertiary structure of a protein through sulphydryl groups forming a bridge (-S-S-).
denaturing
unravelling of proteins
chaperonins
proteins that help fold other proteins.
DNA + RNA differences
DNA = double stranded helix, RNA = single strand. Ribose = RNA, deoxyribose = DNA
Primary Structure
Amino acid chain
Secondary Structure
H-bonding chains. Cause alpha helixes and beta pleated sheets.
Tertiary Structure
Interactions between R-groups.
Quaternary Structure
Addition of polypeptides to each other to make a protein.
Pure Silver
Adenine and Guanine are Purines (two rings), Thymine and Cytosine are Pyramidines.
Nitrogenous Base
Contain a pentose sugar, a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group. In RNA, ribose is sugar and ACUG can be the sugars. In DNA, deoxyribose is sugar and ACTG can be the sugars. In ATP, ribose is sugar, adenine is the nitrogenous base and there are three phosphate groups attached.
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