Upgrade to remove ads
AP Human Geography Chapter 12
Chapter 12 - Settlements and Services
Terms in this set (44)
industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement
industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community
Central Place Theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services
larger settlements are fewer and farther apart that smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther
explains the regular distribution of settlements and explains why the regular distribution exists
proposed by Walter Christaller
based on studies in southern Germany
a market center for the exchange of goods and services
attracts people from the hinterland (market area)
centrally located to maximize profit
competition creates the pattern or settlements
area surrounding a central place from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services
range - how far someone is willing to travel for a service
threshold - population needed to support a business
shape - hexagon
a sovereign state compromising a city and its immediate hinterland
city is its own country
Ex: Singapore, Hong Kong, etc
Clustered Rural Settlement
A rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other, with fields surrounding the settlement
Businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers
including retail services and education, health, and leisure services.
Dispersed Rural Settlements
A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages.
A community's collection of basic industries.
A mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other.
strength of a bond between two places
Gravity Model Equation
Population 1 x Population 2
Hierarchy of Services
A ranking of services based off of their thresholds and ranges; the ranking describes the size of settlement needed to support a service.
Placing the services of a settlement or area in rank order of importance, based on the population
a ranking of places on the basis of what services are available
also known as market area
the area surrounding a cental place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services
A market that is only open for a certain period of time
An open-air trading market that is set up once or twice a week.
Ex: Farmers Market
the largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranging settlement
Pattern of settlements is such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second largest settlement
Ex: Mexico City, London, Paris, Seoul, Jakarta
Range (of a service)
the maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
Only for Developed Countries (MDCs)
relatives developed societies produce a pattern in the size of their cities
a permanent collection of buildings and inhabitants
An urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit.
Threshold (of a service)
the minimum number of people needed to support a service
an increase in the percentage of the number of people living in urban settlements
World City/ Global City
internationally important city
culturally, politically important to world
Ex: London, New York, and Tokyo
A handful of urban settlements that play an especially important role in global business services
The service sector of the economy is subdivided into what three types?
Consumer services, business services and public services
What four types of consumer services are there?
Retail, education, health and leisure
What is the purpose of consumer services?
To provide services to individual consumers who desire them and can afford to pay for them
What is the purpose of business services?
To facilitate the activities of other businesses
Services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses
including professional, financial and transportation services
Services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses
What is the purpose of public services?
To provide security and protection for citizens and businesses
What is considered the single most important factor that determines profitability of a consumer service?
Selecting the right location for a new shop
What does the central place theory seek to explain?
It seeks to explain how the most profitable location can be identified
A market area is a good example of what kind of region?
Nodal, a region with a core where the characteristic is most intense
Geographers need what two pieces of information about a service to determine the extent of the market area?
Its range and threshold
What are the four different levels of market area?
Hamlet, village, town and city
What is the only critical geographical factor in locating a service?
Proximity to customers
What three components determine probability of a location?
Computing the range
Computing the threshold
Drawing the market area
According to the gravity model, consumer behavior reflects what two patterns?
- the greater the number of people living in an area
- the greater the number of potential customers for a service
- the farther away people are from a service, the less likely they are to use it
Global cities are divided into what three levels?
Alpha, beta and gamma
What factors are used to identify global cities and to distinguish among the various ranks?
Economic, political, cultural and infrastructural factors
What two two types of business services do developing countries specialize in?
Offshore financial services
What two major functions do offshore financial services provide for people and businesses?
Taxes and privacy
Certain LDC's have attracted back offices for what two reasons?
Low wages and the ability to speak English
Louis Wirth defined a city as a permanent settlement that has what three characteristics?
Large size, high population density and socially heterogeneous people
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
AP Human Geography Chapter 5 Key Issue 2
AP Human Geography Chapter 10: Agriculture
Ultimate AP Biology Vocabulary Review
AP Bio chapter 22: Decent with Modificat…
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Chapter 12 Services and Settlements
AP Human Geography Chapter 12: Services
Chapter 12- Services
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
The Muscular System
Philosophy: The Thinking Process
French 3 Final - Culture
Brave New World Vocabulary