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Politics of the United States
Government terms: Midterm
Terms in this set (94)
a small group of leaders or a single individual—a dictator—makes all political decisions for the society
highly concentrated and centralized power maintained by political repression
rule by the upper class
citizens vote on issues directly (referendum)
a form of government in which a small group of people control
democracy where citizens represented by elected officials
idea that majority should make the laws for society
systems in which two or more ruling groups preside over government
idea that those in a higher class (due to ancestry, party, etc.) should rule the government
government has little say in economy and other social matters
free will to do whatever you want
divine right of kings
kings are given the right to rule by a divine ruler
mandatory laws given by being human. You know, the right to be shnazzy. :)
agreement between people and government that secures rights and security of the people
grumpy cat. Believed that humans are naturally evil and need the government to restrain them
LIFE, LIBERTY, AND PROPERTYYYYY
An intellectual movement in the 17-18 centuries on reason and thinking than tradition
Articles of Confederation
The original constitution of the newly formed 'Merica. Ineffective, and was dissolved with the Constitution.
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature (Senate) and representation based on population in the other house (House of Representatives)
1786 revolt by Massachusetts farmers seeking relief from debt and foreclosure that was a factor in the calling of the Constitutional Convention
A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name "Publius" to defend the Constitution in detail.
Rose up as the opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification. They opposed the Constitution's powerful centralized government, arguing that the Constitution gave too much political, economic, and military control. They instead advocated a decentralized governmental structure that granted most power to the states
checks and balances
A major principle of the American system of government. Helps maintain separation of powers so that no one branch gets too powerful. Explained in Federalist 51. Examples: President vetos laws; Senate confirms appointments & treaties; Congress impeaches president & judges...
Powers held by both the national government and the state governments
full faith and credit clause
Clause in the Constitution (Article 4, Section 1) requiring each state to recognize the civil judgments rendered by the courts of the other states and to accept their public records and acts as valid.
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
a landmark decision in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the power to regulate interstate commerce, granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution, encompassed the power to regulate navigation
Powers of the people and the states
Powers given to the national government alone
Article VI of the Constitution, which makes the Constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits.
separation of powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
necessary and proper clause
Clause of the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3) setting forth the implied powers of Congress. It states that Congress, in addition to its express powers, has the right to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out all powers the Constitution vests in the national government
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Someone had attempted to impede operation of a branch of the Second Bank of the United States by imposing a tax on all notes of banks not chartered in Maryland.
Power is divided between state and national government
State, local, and federal governments collaborate to create laws
Americans with Disabilities Act
prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities in all areas of public life, including jobs and transportation
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
Supreme Court declares state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional
Clear and Present Danger
Doctrine adopted by Supreme Court that determined under what circumstances (ie. war) limits can be placed on free speech
Law that prohibits the use of illegally obtained evidence in a criminal trial
No person shall be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program receiving federal assistance, solely based on sex.
Judicial suppression of material that would be published or broadcast, on the grounds that it is harmful or contains false information (libel :D)
Actions that are purposefully and discernibly convey a particular message or statement to those viewing it, such as burning a flag GRRRRRRRRRRRR
Determines when the law has the effect of establishing religion. Three parts: Aid had to be secular (nonreligious) in aim, that it could not have the primary effect of advancing or inhibiting religion, and that the government must avoid "an excessive government entanglement with religion."
Plessy v. Ferguson
Ruling that upheld state racial segregation laws for public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal"
Rights that need protection from the government
Rights that need protection by the government
Writ of Habeas Corpus
Statement requiring that the government should produce a prisoner before the court, and justify his or her imprisonment
Ex Post Facto
Prevents the government from charging you with a crime that was never a crime until a recent law was passed.
A false statement that is damaging to person's reputation
The act of making libel towards another person. It's a crime.
Free Exercise Clause
The provision of the First Amendment guaranteeing the free exercise of religion.
The part of the First Amendment that prohibits the establishment of a church endorsed by the national government
Plain View Doctrine
Exception to warrant requirement which allows officers to seize items which they observe and immediately recognize as evidence while they are lawfully present in an area protected by the Fourth Amendment
Double Jeopardy Clause
Provision in the Fifth Amendment that prohibits the government from prosecuting a person more than once for the same crime.
Means of protecting an individual from self-incrimination, as under the 5th Amendment.
Allowed covert searchesto be made to avoid alerting suspects in terrorism cases, with provisions of the Fourth Amendment
Consitutional doctrine that ensures states cannot enact laws that take away the constitutional rights of American citizens enshrined in the Bill of Rights
Barron v. Baltimore (1833)
The Bill of Rights does not apply to the State, only the Federal Government.
Civil War Amendments
The Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments, established during/after the Civil War. Obviously gave rights to newly freed slaves.
Equal Protection Clause
No state shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
Due Process Clause
Equal administration of justice; safeguard from arbitrary denial of life, liberty, or property by the government outside the sanction of law.
Right to Privacy
Alluded to in the the Fourth Amendment, right of the people to be secure, against unreasonable searches.
Roe v. Wade (1973)
Laws against abortion violated the right to privacy under the Constitution.
Bakke v. Regents of California (1978)
Though race can be a factor in admissions, it cannot be the sole factor.
an election, usually held at regular intervals in which candidates are elected in all or most electoral districts of a nation
a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office through a direct vote before his or her term has ended
an electoral district that elects a single member of Congress
a meeting between all members of a party
a set of principal goals supported by a political party
a preliminary election to appoint delegates to a party conference or to select the candidates for a presidential election
a group of voters organized to support certain public policies
a meeting of party members designed to select candidates and propose policies
a political system in which only two parties have a reasonable chance of winning
the power to control appointments to office or the right to privileges
voters choose candidates from different political parties when multiple offices are being decided by a single election
political parties other than the main donkey and elephant fam
a dramatic change in the political system
manipulating the boundaries of an electoral constituency so as to favor one party or class
an electoral system in which parties gain seats in proportion to the number of votes cast for them
percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election
a primary in which voters are not required to declare party affiliation
a primary election where only voters registerd for the party which is holding the primary may vote
527 Political Committees
created primarily to influence selection, nomination, election, or defeat of candidates to federal, state, or local public office
winner take all
system in which the candidates who receives the popular vote of that state gets that state's electoral votes
a process by which states choose electors that decide who the next precident will be
(only in the donkey side) an unelected delegate who is free to support any presidential candidate at the national convention
Federal Election Commission
independent agency founded in 1975 by Congress to regulate campaign finance legislation
a contribution to a political party that is not accounted as going to a particular candidate, thus avoiding legal limitations
political donations regulated by law through Federal Election Commission
Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act (2002)
amendment to the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971, which tried to end use of soft money
McDonnell v. FEC (2003)
case in which Supreme Court upheld constitutionality of BCRA
Citizens United v. FEC (2010)
court decision that struck down provisions in BCRA that banned electioneering communications near primaries and general elections
Political Action Committee (PAC)
organizations that pool campaign contributions from members and donates funds to their respective sides
redistribution of representation in a legislative body, such as during the censuses
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