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Bio 315 Final Redux
Terms in this set (63)
What ecosystem services are provided by forests?
-Carbon cycles and hydrologic cycle
-Slowing of erosion and nutrient pollution
Explain nutrient cycling
It is where decomposition of organic matter returns nutrients to the soil
What is wood from forests used for?
50% is burned for fuel
-Fibres and Dyes
Where do pepper wood trees come from?
In what ways are pepper wood trees important in the ecosystem?
-Mutualism with ants
-Food for gorillas
What trees are harvested in selective cutting?
Older mature trees
What trees are harvesting in shelter wood cutting?
Less desirable and dead trees
What trees are harvested in seed tree cutting?
Involves the removal of all but a few trees
What trees are harvested in clear cutting?
All trees are removed from a particular site
What percentage of the earth's land does the forest cover?
Where do most harvests for timber occur today?
What is a tree monoculture and what are the disadvantages of this?
-One species all planted at the same time
-Does not support high biodiversity
-More susceptible to disease and pest outbreaks
What are the chief causes of deforestation?
What is the mountain pine beetle?
A beetle that has flourished in monocrop timber plantations
What are the chief consequences of deforestation?
-Loss of habitat
-Erosion and loss of nutrients
What are the major types of forest on earth?
-Tropical rain forest
-Temperate deciduous forest
-Temperate rain forest
-Tropical dry forest
What percent of the entire earth is Boreal forest?
True or False Heterogeneity increases biodiversity
What is Heterogeneity?
What percentage of water entering a forest goes back to the atmosphere via transpiration?
List the products that can be derived from pepper wood trees
-bark helps treat malaria, infections
List the products that can be derived from ironwood trees (Prunus africana)
-bark has anti-cancer properties
-ironwood is now an endangered species due to over harvesting
How many acres are lost annually to deforestation?
13 million acres
Where is deforestation primarily occurring?
What are the two major regulations that have been enacted regarding forest management?
-National forest management act (1976)
-Roadless Rule (2000)
What percent of US land area is part of the US national forest system?
What is the utilitarian ethic?
Forest to be used for the greater good, but sutainably
Who was Gifford Pinchot? what was his ethic?
What are uses for the US National Forest System?
Recreation, hunting, fishing, grazing, lodging, and business
True or False logging, mining, and grazing, are all subsidized
True or False Taxpayers subsidize private companies
True or False each taxpayers contribute $2000 per year per person to subsidies
What kind of forest is the Tongass?
Where is the Tongass forest?
True or False most timber harvest occurs on public land
What percent of forest are owned by individuals?
What percent of forest are owned by corporations?
True or False removal is greater than growth
What did the National Forest Management Act require?
required national forests to create sustainable resource use plans
What 3 things did the Roadless Rule do?
-Put 31% of national forests off limits to road construction
-Limits the areas that can be harvested
What does the Forestry Stewardship Council do?
-Rates companies based on how they harvest trees
-More pressure on companies to offer sustainable products
What is the leading cause of extinction and loss of biodiversity to date?
How are terrestrial habitats, such as forests and grasslands, being destroyed?
Agriculture, Urbanization, sprawl, logging, and road building
How are marine habitats being destroyed?
Fishing practices, Dredges, trawls, Dynamite fishing
What changes result from habitat loss?
-Loss of cover
-More edge habitat
What % of habitat must be lost before patch isolation compounds loss
How does the loss of habitat differ from fragmentation of habitat?
Why was patchiness originally thought to be beneficial for wildlife and populations?
Why is the isolation of habitat patches problematic, and what solutions are there?
Why are patch edges and small patches dangerous for many organisms?
predators gain access to patches at edges
Small patches have a high proportion of edge habitat
Small patches act as ecological traps
Predation loss is highest near edges
What are the factors that make characterizing and predicting the effects of habitat fragmentation and habitat loss so challenging?
What is the brown headed cowbird?
It is a bird that is considered a parasite, lays eggs in a songbird's nest which hatches and is fed by the songbird
True or False forest fragmentation decreases nest density and paristism rate
What can be built to connect patches together?
Patchiness can cause organisms to become genetically.....
Animals won't necessarily __________________ among isolated patches
Roads __________________ populations
Regarding marine habitat fragmentation what habitat has been the main focus of this research?
What are characteristics of seagrass habitat?
-Important nursery habitat
What threats to seagrass habitats face?
In the Hovel and Lipscus study of marine habitats where was the highest survival rate found?
small isolated patches
What are the 2 things you do when you destroy habitat?
-There is a loss or reduction in area
-There is a change in the configuration
What is the matrix?
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