Terms in this set (110)
Three Groups: The erector spinae, semispinalis, deep posterior spinal group.
Most powerful. Spinalis, Longissimus, Illiocostalis.
Thoracis Spine upward. Strengthening helps with humpback or kyphosis.
Deep Posterior Spinal Group
Interspinales, intertransversales, rotatores, and multifidus. Parrellel function to transversus abdominus. Stabilizes spine and controls small movements.
Extends and rotates spine. Lumbar portion. Vital for stabilization and rotates verebral column to opp side. Spans most vertebrae and has more potential force, often emphasized.
Back extension Prone
Both sides of the erector spinae, semispinalis, and deep posterior spinal group can produce desired extension of spine, with erector spinae being most powerful.
Rotating right to left. Two columns if the right spinae, left semispinalis, and left multifidus, left rotatores primariliy work to produce spinal rotation, while lifting spine off mat into extension.
The quadratus lumborum can perform four actions:
Lateral flexion of vertebral column, with ipsilateral contraction
Extension of lumbar vertebral column, with bilateral contraction
Fixes the 12th rib during forced expirationElevates ilium, with ipsilateral contraction
The Quadratus lumborum is a muscle in the lower back
The quadratus lumborum, or QL, is a common source of lower back pain. Because the QL connects the pelvis to the spine and is therefore capable of extending the lower back when contracting bilaterally, the two QLs pick up the slack, as it were, when the lower fibers of the erector spinae are weak or inhibited
Psoas major, psoas minor and illiacus make up illiopsoas. Responsible for hip flexion. Attaches to spine so is a vital role in helping to maintain the desired normal curvature of lumbar spine and assist with lateral flexion to lumbar spine.
The most superficial (top layer) of the muscles responsible for spinal extension are the erector spinae. The erector spinea is essentially a large bundle of muscles that originate on the sacrum and extend to the lumbar, thoracic and cervical spine, running in the groove just to either side of the vertebral column. The erector spinae splits into three large bundles called the spinalis (located closest to the spine and labeled #3 in the photo below), longissimus (called the longissimus because it is so long, labeled #2 in the photo below) and iliocostalis (attaching from the spine to the ribs, labeled #1 below).
Back extension prone, example. the simultaneous contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles around a joint to hold a position.
he pelvic girdle consists of paired hipbones, connected in front at the pubic symphysis and behind by the sacrum; each is made up of three bones—the blade-shaped ilium, above and to either side, which accounts for the width of the hips; the ischium, behind and below, on which the weight falls in sitting; and the pubis, in front.
Bony Landmarks on pelvis and hip
Each hip bone made up of illium, ischium, and pubis. Illiac crest, ASIS, pubic symphysis, ischial tuberosity, greater trochanter.
Upper wing part.Upper border of the illium. Border of top of wing.
Anterior superior illiac spines-ASIS
Slide hands down to front of illiac crest and down, a bony prominence.
Lower front point of hip. Seen from side, most forward part of hip.
Ischium, strong bone in the back of hip bone. Lower portion has a prominence or sit bone.
Hip bone formed between hollow socket of pelvis and head of femur. You can paplate by placing thumb on side of the crest of the illium and reaching down the thigh with middle finger. When externally rotate leg, you feel the GT.
Anterior pelvic tilt
if you rotate top of pelvis forward, the ASIS will be above the PS. Increases arch in lumbar spine.
Posterior Pelvic tilt
ASIS will be behind PS. Curve of lower back is flattened. Imprint.
Ideal standing Alignment
Neutral feet, knees straight but not bowed, neutral pelvis, neutral spine curve, scapulae neutral and shoulders open, head not jutting forward.
Exaggeration of cervical curve
Increased curve in thoracis region. Common in aging. Can be fixed with upper spinal extensor work.
increased lumbar curve, accompanies anterior pelvic tilt. Beer belly or pregnant. Lower back issues, need ab work .
abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine
the bony arch formed by the collarbones and shoulder blades in humans
Trapezius (inferior part)
Pectoralis minor and serratus anterior
Abducts and protracts the scapula
places where bones connect: hinge, pivot, gliding, ball and socket
No joint cavity, bones are held together by fibrous tissue, found between splints and cannon bone. Found between skull bones (sutures) teeth in sockets
This is one of the three most genral types of joints. This type is a joint where cartilage connects two bones. The pubic symphysis is the best example. These joints allow for a little motion but retain a significant amount of stability.
bones separated by a joint cavity; lubricated by synovial fluid; enclosed in an articular capsule: shoulder, hip, knee, elbow, carpal, interphalangeal
a bending movement around a joint in a limb (as the knee or elbow) that decreases the angle between the bones of the limb at the joint
movement that brings limb into or toward a straight condition
rotation of a joint toward the middle of the body
Rotation of a joint away from the middle of the body.
Shoulder horizontal adduction
1. Movement of humerus in horizontal plane toward midline of body
2. AKA horizontal flexion
Movement around an axis away from the mid-line
rotates towards the middle of the body
movement AWAY from the midline in the HORIZONTAL plane
Smooth Muscle tissue
no striations and involuntary, found in walls of hollow visceral organs such as the stomach urinary bladder and respiratory packages, forces food and other substances through internal body channels
cardiac muscle tissue
occurs only in the heart, where it constitutes the bulk of the heart walls; striated; not voluntary
skeletal muscle tissue
packaged into skeletal muscles, organs that attach to and cover the bony skeleton; longest muscle cells; have strips called striations; a voluntary muscle; responsible for overall body mobility
strong sheet of tissue that acts as a tendon to attach muscles to bone- Tendon
connects muscle to bone-hip spine elbow
tensor fasciae latae
abducts, flexes, and rotates thigh laterally
ball-and socket- joint
Ball shaped part of one bone fits into a cupped shape part of another bone. Greatest range. Shoulder, Hip.
eccentrically stabilizes hip, dysfunction here inhibits gluteus musculature, comprised of iliopsoas, but also rectus femoris and sartorius, tensor fascia lata, IT band and in combination with adductors
Front of hip
iliopsoas and rectus femoris located here for hip flexion
adductors. pectineusm adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus, and gracilis. Also help with Hip flexion
gluteus maximus, hamstrings(semimembranosus stemitendionsus, biceps femoris)
gluteus medius, gluteus minimus
Hip External rotation
gluteus maximus, 6 deep external rotators, biceps femoris, pectineus
hamstrings: biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus
The primary knee extensors is the quadriceps which consist of the following muscles, the vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, vastness medialis and the rectus femorris
vastus lateralis front of thigh
6 deep lateral rotators
others: gluteus maximus, bicep femurs (long head), pectieus, adductor brevis, adductor longus
largest, most prominent muscle of the calf of the leg, the action of which extends the foot
a:extend thigh & flex knee
part of the hamstrings; Flexes knee, extends hip, rotation of the knee
Origin: Ischial tuberosity, Action: extend thigh, medially rotate thigh, flex knee (Posterior thigh) part of hamstring
Abducts and laterally rotates thigh at the hip
Origin: Ischial Spine
Insertion: Greater Trochanter
Action: Adducts, extends and rotates hip
Origin: inner surface of obturator membrane
Insertion: greater trochanter
Action: adducts, extends and rotates hip
very strong lateral rotator of femur
, HIP EXTENSOR & OUTWARD ROTATOR
O: Central to ischiatic tuberosity
I: Distal to trochanter fossa
the outermost of the three gluteal muscles
Deep buttock muscle. Abduct & medially rotate thigh.
Medially rotates thigh; abducts the hip. Innermost
Anterior, medial thigh muscles. Adduct, flex & rotate thigh.
Adducts and flexes thigh at the hip
tensor fasciae latae
Abducts, medially rotates, and flexes thigh; stabilizes the hips
Description: Superficial muscle running diagonally across thigh from outside at ilium to inside at knee
Action: Flexes, abducts, and laterally rotates thigh
Action:adducts, flexes thigh at hip; laterally rotates thigh. Origin: pubic crest, pubic symphysis. insertion: linea aspera of femur. Location: medial to pectineus. Nerve: obturator.
Adducts thigh at the hip and flexes leg at the knee; assists in medial rotation
Flexes thigh at the hip; flexes vertebral column
**Iliacus + Psoas Major + Psoas Minor = Iliopsas
Biceps Femoris(Prime Mover), Semitendinosus(Prime Mover), Semimembranosus(Prime Mover), Sartorius, Gracilis, Gastrocnemius, Plantaris, Popliteus(rotates leg medially)
sides of the neck; movement of the head
a large triangular muscle covering the shoulder joint and serving to abduct and flex and extend and rotate the arm. Front
Thick, fan shaped muscle located anterior of the human body. Located in the boob (pecs). Responsible of the movement of the shoulder joint.
Isotonic contractions in which the muscle exerts force while the muscle lengthens; also called negative work
occurs when a muscle shortens in length and develops tension; positive resistence
causes movement at a joint, brings insertion closer to the origin
The sheet of fibrous connective tissue that connects the abdominal muscles from each side on the ventral midline
Pelvic floor muscles
Levator ani muscles (puborectalis, pubococcygeus, iliococcygeus) and Coccygeus
Levator ani muscles
forms a sling with coccygeous muscle that supports abdominopelvic viscera, resists intra-abdominal pressure and is innervated by the sacral plexus and pudendal nerve
pelvic muscle located posteriorly within the pelvis that help support the sacrum
pectineus, adductor longus, gracilis, adductor brevis, adductor magnus-both heads. opp gluteis medius
closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
on the opposite side
Effect the same side of the body
muscles that straighten the wrist, hand, and fingers to form a straight line
Supinator - Pronator teres - Pronator quadratus
external and internal obliques and quadratus lumborum
part of skeleton including cranium, vertebral column, and rib cage; 80 bones found along the axis of you body
divides the body into left and right sides not in the middle
away from the median plane
divides the body into upper and lower halves
divides the body into front and back
pivot joint, only permits rotation
slipping or gliding movements / intercarpal, intertarsal joints, articular process of the ribs
Amphiarthrodial (slightly movable) but held together by strong ligaments
a freely moving joint in which the bones are so articulated as to allow extensive movement in one plane
This joint allows you to twiddle your thumbs
a muscle that relaxes while another contracts, Muscle acts in opposition to the agonist, often lengthening to do so
2 or more muscles working together
a muscle that contracts while another relaxes