43 terms

Biology Ch 17

STUDY
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Terms in this set (...)

Mycorrhizae
symbiotic relationships between fungal hyphae and plant roots
Cuticles
on stomata of lower leaf surfaces; conservation of water in nondesert plants
Stomata
the small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move
Gametophyte
Haploid, or gamete-producing, phase of an organism
Sporophyte
diploid, or spore-producing, phase of an organism
Nonvascular Plants
plant that absorbs water and other substances directly thorugh its cells
Mosses
Any of a group of seedless nonvascular plants
Vascular plants
have tubelike structures that carry water, nutrients, and other substances throughout the plant
Vascular tissues
tubelike, elongated cells through which water, food and other materials are transported throughout the plant
Primary growth
pattern of growth that takes place at the tips and shoots of a plant; makes the plant longer/taller
Secondary growth
pattern of plant growth in which stems increase in width
Seedless vascular plants
plants that use spores to reproduce and have vascular tissue
Fronds
fern leaves
Seed
a mature fertilized plant ovule consisting of an embryo and its food source and having a protective coat
Microspores
A spore from a heterosporous plant species that develops into a male gametophyte.
Megaspore
A spore from a heterosporous plant species that develops into a female gametophyte.
Ovule
a small body that contains the female germ cell of a plant
Pollination
transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of a plant
Gymnosperms
seed plant that bears its seeds directly on the surfaces of cones (do not have flowers)
Angiosperms
flowering plants that produce seeds in fruit
Carpel
The female reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of the stigma, style, and ovary.
Endosperm
nutritive tissue surrounding the embryo within seeds of flowering plants
Cotyledons
structure of seed plant embryo that stores or absorbs food for the developing plant
Flower receptacle
1. The androecium (male)
2. The gynoecium (female)
3. The corolla (petals)
4. The calyx (sepals)
Sepals
Leaflike parts that cover and protect the flower bud
Stamens
The pollen-producing male reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and filament.
Ovary
a flower structure that encloses and protects ovules and seeds as they develop
Style
The narrow elongated part of the pistil between the ovary and the stigma
Stigma
the apical end of the style where deposited pollen enters the pistil
Dicots
angiosperms that have two seed leaves
Monocots
angiosperms that have only one seed leaf
What advantages did the first plants have in forming mycorrhizae?
The fungi enable the plant to take up phosphorus and other nutrients from rocky soil, while the plant supplies organic molecules to the fungus
4 key evolutionary innovations that are used to trace the evolution of plants
1. Alternation of generations. 2. Vascular tissue. 3. Seeds. 4. Flowers and fruits.
How does water get from the roots of a liverwort up through the plant body? How is it different in a fern plant?
All materials have to e transported by osmosis and diffusion in the liverwort plant. Ferns have vascular tissues that form a network of tube-like structures.
Life cycle of nonvascular plants
Sperm is released from each antheridium on the haploid gametophytes. They swim to the archegonium and down to the egg, where fertilization takes place. The zygote develops into a diploid sporophyte and it grows out of the archegonium forming a sporangium at its apex. The sporophyte grows on the gametophyte and eventually produces spores as a result of meiosis. The spores are shed from the sporangium. The spores germinate, giving rise to gametophytes.
If a fern doesn't have seeds, how does it spread offspring to distant locations?
It has free-swimming sperm that requires the presence of free water for fertilization
Life cycle of a fern
Haploid gametophyte produces eggs and sperm. The sperm swims through the water and fertilizes the egg and the zygote grows into a sporophyte. The sporophyte bears haploid spores on the underside of their leaves in the sorus. The spores are released from the sorus and float to the ground where they germinate, growing into haploid gametophytes.
How are vascular plant life cycles different to nonvascular plant life cycles?
Nonvascular plants are made largely of gametophyte haploid tissue, whereas vascular seedless plants have both gametophyte and sporophyte individuals, each independent and self-sufficient.
4 ways that seeds are adapted for life on land
1. Dispersal 2. Dormancy 3. Germination 4. Nourishment
3 components of seeds and their functions
1. Seed coat - drought resistant protective cover. 2. Endosperm or cotyledons - Sources of food for developing embryo. 3. Sporophyte plant embryo - Develops into the new plant
3 things unique to angiosperms
1. The ovule is completely enclosed by sporophyte tissue when it is fertilized. 2. Able to deliver their pollen directly from one individual of a species to another. 3. They are flowering plants
Compare and contrast the life cycles of gynmosperms and angiosperms
Both have sporophyte as the dominant generation and both have separate male and female gametophytes, which join to form a zygote that develops into a seed.
However, angiosperms use flowers as the reproductive structures and gymnosperms do not. Also, angiosperms use double fertilization to produce both a zygote and endosperm and gymnosperms do not.
In what geographical areas are gymnosperms, rather than angiosperms, dominant and why?
Conifers are often found in moderately dry regions because they have needle-like leaves which slow water loss.