42 terms

APUSH Key Terms Ch 12

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Romanticism
Romanticism was marked by the liberation of the human spirit. Romanticism found expression in the literature, philosophy, art, politics and science of the US.
James Fenimore Cooper
James Fenimore Cooper was the first great US novelist. He was the author of over thirty novels in three decades. His contemporaries knew him as a master of adventure and suspense. His evocation of the America wilderness in his literature brought him distinction and he was known for his fascinations with man's relationship to nature and with the challenges (and dangers) of America's expansion westward. His most important novels, the "Leatherstocking Tales", were The Last of the Mohicans (1826) and The Deerslayer (1841). In them, he explored the frontiersman's experience with Indians, pioneers, violence and the law. The ideals of the independent individual with a natural inner goodness as well as fear of disorder were prominent themes in his work.
Walt Whitman
Walt Whitman was a self-proclaimed poet of American democracy. In 1855, he wrote Leaves of Grass. His poems were an unrestrained celebration of democracy, of liberation of the individual, and of the pleasures of the flesh as well as of the spirit. He expressed yearning for emotional and physical fulfillment and expressed the soaring spirit of individualism that characterized his age.
Herman Melville
Herman Melville ran away from home and spent years sailing the world. He wrote Moby Dick in 1851. It is a story of courage and of the strength of individual will but also a tragedy of pride and revenge. He believed personal fulfillment and triumph could not only liberate but also destroy and that conviction of human spirit was often self-destructive.
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allen Poe wrote Tamerlane and Other Poems in 1827, but it received little recognition. He wrote "The Raven" 1845, establishing himself as major controversial poet. It evoked images of an individual rising above the narrow confines of intellect and exploring the deeper world of the spirit and the emotions. He believed the world contained much pain and horror and influenced Baudelaire.
Transcendentalists
Transcendentalists embraced a theory of the individual that rested on a distinction between "reason" and "understanding". Reason, they believed, was the individual's innate capability to grasp beauty and truth through giving full expression to the instincts and emotions, highest human faculty. Understanding was the use of intellect in the narrow, artificial ways imposed by society. Transcendentalism involved the repression of instinct and the victory of externally imposed learning. Each person's goal therefore should be liberation from the confines of understanding and the cultivation of reason. They believed people should strive to transcend the limits of intellect and allow emotions to create an original relation to the universe.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Ralph Waldo Emerson was a Unitarian minister who devoted himself to writing in 1832 and transcendentalism. In "Nature", 1836, he wrote that individuals should find communion with the natural world for self-fulfillment. "Self Reliance", 1841, explained a quest for self-reliance was really a search for communion with the unity of the universe, the wholeness of God, the great spiritual force that he described the "Oversoul." In 1837, in his lecture "The American Scholar", he explained that truth and beauty could be derived as much from instinct as from learning and suggested that Americans, lacking the rich cultural heritage of European nations, could still aspire to artistic and literary greatness.
Henry David Thoreau
Henry David Thoreau repudiated repressive forces of society. He believed one should work for self-realization by resisting pressures to conform to society's expectations and responding instead to their own instincts. In his work Walden, in 1854, he claimed that living simply was a desirable alternative to the rapidly modernizing world around him (the disruptive and intrusive railroad was unhappily symbolized). In 1849, his "Resistance to Civil Government" claimed that personal morality had first claim on actions, and that a government that required violation of that morality had no legitimate authority (civil disobedience).
Utopian societies
Utopian societies were experiments in communal living spawned by Transcendentalism. George Ripley created Brook Farm in 1841 in Roxbury, Massachusetts. It was planned so that each member would share equally in labor as well as leisure (time for self-cultivation), because it was believed that manual labor bridged the gap between the world of the intellect and learning and the world of instinct and nature; this gave way to form of socialism. Charles Fourier—Phalanxes. Robert Owen created New Harmony in 1825.
Nathaniel Hawthorne
Nathaniel Hawthorne expressed disillusionment with the Brook Farm experiment. He wrote The Blithedale Romance in 1852 in which he wrote scathingly of Brook Farm itself, portraying the disastrous consequences of the experiment as the fault of the individuals who submitted to it and describing the great fire that destroyed the community as a kind of liberation from oppression. He wrote The Scarlet Letter in 1850 and The House of Seven Gables in1851 in which he wrote about the price of individuals pay for cutting themselves off from society; egotism he claimed was the serpent that lay at the heart of human misery.
Margaret Fuller
Margaret Fuller was a leading transcendentalist and associate of Emerson. She suggested the important relationship between the discovery of the 'self' that was so central to antebellum reform and the questioning of gender roles. She produced Women of the 19th Century, a feminist work, in1844. She had intimate relationships with many men. She was a great admirer of European socialists and a great champion of the Italian Revolution of 1848.
Shakers
"Mother" Ann Lee founded the Shakers in the 1770s. They derived their name from a unique religious ritual where they would shake themselves free of sin. They preached commitment to complete celibacy. They attracted about 6,000 members in the 1840s (more women than men). Contact between men and women was limited. Shakers openly endorse sexual equality and a God who was not necessarily male or female. Mother Lucy Wright succeeded Ann Lee.
Mormons + Joseph Smith + Brigham Young
In 1830, Joseph Smith published the Book of Mormon which expressed that righteous society would serve as a model for a new holy community in the US. He tried to establish "New Jerusalem" in areas such as Independence, Missouri and Kirtland, Ohio but they were persecuted because of polygamy, etc. The Mormons moved to Nauvoo, Illinois in 1840s but in 1844 Smith was arrested for treason and was killed in prison by an angry mob. Brigham Young led 12,000 people to Salt Lake City, Utah where they made a permanent settlement. Mormons believed in human perfectibility and placed emphasis on the family and genealogy. There were men and women who felt displaced by changing society who found security and order in Mormonism.
Protestant Revivalism
Protestant Revivalism had origins in the Great Awakening of 1820s. New Light Revivalists came to share the optimistic belief that every individual was capable of salvation.
Charles Grandison Finney
Charles Grandison Finney was an evangelist Presbyterian minister who became the most influential revival leader of the 1820 and 1830s. He preached that traditional Calvinist doctrines were becoming obsolete and destructive. Each person, he preached, contained within himself or herself the capacity to experience spiritual rebirth and achieve salvation. He taught that a revival of faith could depend on individual effort. Finney launched revivals along the Erie Canal (burned-over district). He had particular success mobilizing women in Rochester, New York. Gradually, Finney developed a following among prosperous citizens of the region. Revivalism was not only a means of personal salvation but also a mandate for reform (and control) of larger societies. Finney' s revivalism became a crusade against personal immorality.
Temperance Crusade
The Temperance Crusade was a crusade against drunkenness because no social vice was more responsible for crime, disorder, and poverty than the excessive use of alcohol. Alcoholism placed a special burden on wives, so women became especially involved in the Temperance Crusade. The supply of alcohol was growing with consumption, and as drinking provided a social pastime for many isolated westerns and for many workers (especially recent immigrants), alcoholism was wide spread among white males. In 1826 the American Society for the Promotion of Temperance formed. It attempted to use many techniques of revivalism in preaching abstinence. In 1840, six reformed alcoholics in Baltimore organized the Washington Temperance Society. Temperance had more than a million people sign a formal pledge to forgo hard liquor. This became a split in the movement as some advocated for abstinence to include beer and wine. Some demanded state legislation restrict sale/consumption of alcohol as in Maine in 1851 while others said it was up to the conscience of the individual. The Temperance Crusade pitted Protestants against Catholics.
Phrenology
Phrenology became popular in the US beginning in the 1830s when Orson and Lorenzo Fowler published the Phrenology Almanac. They argued that the shape of an individual's skull was an important indicator of his or her character and intelligence. Phrenology encouraged measuring an individual's fitness for various positions in life and seemed to promise an end to the arbitrary process by which people matched their talents to occupations and responsibilities.
Contagion theory
The Contagion theory was introduced in 1843 when Oliver Wendell Holmes published his findings from a study of large numbers of cases of puerperal fever (septicemia in children) and concluded that the disease could be transmitted from one person to another. This discovery of the Contagion met criticism but was vindicated by the success of the Hungarian physician Ignaz Semmelweis, who was successful in rooting out infection by having his students wash their hands and disinfect instruments.
Horace Mann
Horace Mann was the first secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education in 1837. He believed education was the only way to counterwork the tendency to the domination of capital and servility of labor. He also believed a purpose of education was to protect democracy. He reorganized the Massachusetts school system; he lengthened the academic year to six months, doubled teachers' salaries, enriched the curriculum, and introduced new methods of professional training for teachers. Mann established the first American state supported teacher's college in 1839, where the first professional association of teachers was created in 1845. Mann spoke frequently of the role of public schools in extending democracy and expanding individual opportunity and also spoke of their role in creating social order.
Public Education
States built new schools, created a teacher's colleges, and offered vast new groups of children access to education. By the 1850s, the principle of tax-supported elementary schools had been accepted in all the states. However, this new education varied widely. Massachusetts's educators were capable men and women, often trained highly, and with an emerging sense of themselves as career professionals. In other areas, teachers were barely literate and limited funding for education restricted opportunities severely. In the West, children often had no access to schools. In the South the entire black population was barred from formal education and only 1/3 of all white children of school age actually enrolled in schools in 1860. 72% in the North enrolled, but many students attended classes only briefly and casually.
Benevolent Empire
New institutions to help the handicapped, institutions that formed part of a great network of charitable activities known as the Benevolent Empire (like Perkin's School for the Blind in Boston), were established.
Asylum Movement
The Asylum Movement was an attempt to reform and rehabilitate inmates. It led to new forms of rigid prison discipline such as solitary confinement and imposition of silence on work crews, which were meant to give prisoners opportunities to meditate about their wrongdoings. The Asylum Movement was driven by the idea that a properly structured institution could prevent moral failure or rescue individuals from failure and despair, and it helped spawn the creation of new orphanages designed as educational institutions.
Indian reservations
The idea of creating enclosed regions in which Indians would live in isolation from white society to get Indians off good lands and also to serve a reform purpose led to the formation of Indian reservations. In reservations, Indians would undertake 'the great work of regenerating the Indian race,' and would learn ways of civilization in a protected setting.
Feminism
Women played central roles in wide range of movements and particularly important role in the movements on behalf of temperance and the abolition of slavery. In the process they expressed the problems that women faced in a male dominated society. Women in the 1830s and 1840s faced a new set of barriers that had emerged from the doctrine of separate spheres and the transformation of the family.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, along with Lucretia Mott, arrived at a World Antislavery Convention in London, only to be turned down because of her sex. She then worked with Susan B. Anthony as a leader of Seneca Falls and framer of the Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions.
Sarah and Angelina Grimke
Sarah and Angelina Grimke were active and outspoken abolitionists in South Carolina. They ignored attacks by men who claimed that their activities were inappropriate for their sex.
Lucretia Mott
Lucretia Mott traveled with Elizabeth Cady Stanton to the antislavery convention in London, and met with Susan B. Anthony to draw parallels to abolitionist movement. She participated in the Seneca Falls Convention.
Lucy Stone
Lucy Stone took the revolutionary step of retaining her maiden name after marriage.
Sojourner Truth
Sojourner Truth was a freed black woman who, after spending several years in a strange religious cult in New York, emerged as a powerful and eloquent spokeswoman of the abolition of slavery.
Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony worked with Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott to draw the parallel between the plight of women and that of slaves.
Seneca Falls Convention
The Seneca Falls Convention was a convention to discuss the question of women's rights. From it emerged the declaration of Sentiments and resolutions.
Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions
The Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions was patterned off of the Declaration of Independence. It states that "all men and women are created equal," that women no less than men have certain unalienable rights. Most prominent in the Declaration was the demand for suffrage. It included the rejection of the whole notion that men and women should be assigned separate spheres in society.
Quakers
The Quakers were very involved in feminist efforts. They embraced the ideal of sexual equality and had women preachers/ community leaders. Women taught to expect the absence of gender-based restriction in their own communities. Quakers were also among the leaders of the antislavery movement, so Quaker women were leaders in those efforts. Quaker women's demands for full sexual equality caused a schism in the Society of Friends in 1848.
Abolitionism
Abolitionism was the demand immediate unconditional universal abolition of slavery.
American Colonization Society
The American Colonization Society was in1817 founded by white Virginians. It worked to challenge slavery without challenging property rights or southern sensibilities. It posed gradual manumission with masters receiving compensation. It began to transport liberated slaves to Liberia in 1830 (indp rep in 1846); negligible force.
William Lloyd Garrison
William Lloyd Garrison wrote The Liberator beginning in 1831. He believed that opponents of slavery should view the institution from the black perspective and demand immediate, unconditional universal abolition of slavery. He spoke with particular scorn to advocates of colonization because, by ridding the country of free blacks, they were strengthening slavery. Garrison attracted a large following.
American Antislavery Society
The American Antislavery Society was founded in 1833 after a convention in Philadelphia. Membership mushroomed; in 1835, there were 400 chapters, but by 1838, there were 1,350 chapters with 250,000+ members.
Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass was the greatest African American Abolitionist. He escaped from slavery to Massachusetts in 1838. He became an outspoken leader of antislavery sentiment and spent two years lecturing in England. In 1847, he bought his freedom and founded the North Star. He wrote Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass in1845 in which he presented a damning picture of slavery. He demanded for African Americans not only freedom but full social and economic equality.
Anti-abolitionist violence
Anti-abolitionists believed abolitionists were dangerous to the existing social system. The result of this belief was escalating violence in 1830s. Prudence Crandall tried to admit African Americans to her school, so anti-abolitionists shut the school down. In 1834, abolitionist headquarters in Philadelphia were burned down. Elijah Lovejoy was shot in 1837, after his printing presses were repeatedly burned. Garrison was imprisoned in 1835. Anti-abolitionism was the most violent expression of a sentiment that many other white Americans shared.
Amistad case
Africans destined for slavery in Cuba gained control of a ship in 1839 and tried to return to Africa but were intercepted by US as pirates. Abolitionists declared the Africans free. In 1841, the case finally reached Supreme Court where they were declared free and antislavery groups funded their passage back to Africa.
"Free soil" movement
The "free soil" movement was marked by the sentiment that underlay the foundation of the Liberty Party in 1840: keep slavery out of the territories. Ultimately, it accomplished what abolitionism could not in that it attracted the support of large numbers.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Uncle Tom's Cabin was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe as a serial book in 1852. 300,000 copies sold in a year. It combined sentimental with political. This is significant because the novel inflamed sectional tensions to a new level of passion.