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The Constitution Review Book
7th Grade Social Studies Review Book
Terms in this set (47)
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
Articles of Confederation
this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781 during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage
a written plan of government; The law-making document of the U.S.
a member of a former political party in the United States that favored a strong centralized federal government; Supporters of the Constitution
a person who opposed a strong national government and insisted on the inclusion of the Bill of Rights.
meeting of delegates in 1787 to revise the Articles of Confederation, which produced the new U.S. Constitution; A meeting for delegates to change the Articles of Confederation, they wanted to keep it a secret.
At the Constitutional Convention, larger states wanted to follow the Virginia Plan, which based each state's representation in Congress on state population. Smaller states wanted to follow the New Jersey Plan, which gave every state the same number of representatives. The convention compromised by creating the House and the Senate, and using both of the two separate plans as the method for electing members of each; the agreement by which Congress would have two houses, the Senate (where each state gets equal representation-two senators) and the House of Representatives (where representation is based on population); Roger Sherman worked out a plan to create a two-house Congress. The larger states would be lower house, the House of Representatives.
the decision at the Constitutional convention to count slaves as 3/5 of a person for the purpose of deciding the population and determining how many seats each state would have in Congress
the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president; The group established by the constitution to elect the president and vice president, voters chose electors.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press; Document that gives citizens natural rights and freedoms.
Changes to the Constitution
the branch of government, headed by the president, that carries out the nation's laws and policies; President and Vice President. The branch that carries out the laws.
The branch of government that makes the laws; The people. The law-making part of government.
the branch of government, including the federal court system, that interprets the nation's laws; The supreme Court. To interpret the law.
highest court in the United States established by the Constitution
House of Representatives
lower house of congress based on state population; must be 25, 7 years of citizenship, 2 year term, 435 members, speaker of the house, no limit on terms; Represents the larger states. Is part of Congress.
term-6 years, number of members-100, requirements- must be 30 and a U.S. citizen for 4 years, leaders- Vice President, duties- represent each state; Upper House of Congress; Represents the smaller states. Is part of Congress.
Introduction to the Constitution
where the people decide for themselves wether or not to have something, the right of the people to govern themselves; The right of the people to vote directly on issues rather than have their representatives decide.
The idea that certain restrictions should be placed on government to protect the natural rights of citizens; The principle that the government has only the powers the Constitution gives it.
a system in which power is divided between the national and state governments; The principle of the U.S. Constitution that establishes the division of power between the federal government and the state government.
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power; Principle which the powers of government are divided among separate branches.
Separation of Powers
the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government; Principle which the powers of government are divided among separate branches.
the part of the Constitution that permits Congress to make any laws "necessary and proper" to carrying out its powers; To stretch a government power.
a vote that blocks a decision; rejecting a law passed by Congress.
to change in a formal way; to change for the better
a proposed law
An action taken by Congress to reverse a presidential veto, requiring a two-thirds majority in each chamber.
legal process to formally charge the president with misconduct in office; to formally accuse an official of a crime.
an example that may serve as a basis for imitation or later action; to set an example of yourself for others
not allowed under the Constitution; a law that violates the constitution.
Why did the Articles of Confederation fail as a government?
It didn't give the Congress the power to collect taxes and regulate trade.
How did the Great Compromise settle the dispute over representation between the large and small states?
The Great Compromise settled the method of representation in the legislative branch (the US Congress). Small states wanted equal representation (equality by state), and large states wanted representation based on population (equality by vote).
Under the compromise, all states were represented equally in the Senate. This made the smaller states happy. In the House of Representatives, representation was based on population. This pleased the bigger states.
How did the 3/5ths Compromise settle the dispute between the Northern and Southern States?
If slaves counted as 3/5's of a person, than the South wouldn't have too much "people" in the House of Representatives, and Northerners wouldn't be out ruled by a lot.
Describe how each of the five Principles of the Constitution limits the power of the federal government:
A- Separation of Powers- Each branch of government has their own responsibilities and powers. Thus not giving some branch too much power.
B- Limited Government- The Constitution limits the powers of the government to say what they can or can't do.
C- Checks and Balances- Every Branch has a little control over the other 2. Thus letting a branch overpower another branch if they have to.
D- Popular Sovereignty- The government only gets its power from the people. Thus letting the people decide on an issue in their state.
E- Federalism- The separation between the federal government and state government.
Why was the bill of Rights added to the Constitution?
To let the people know what they can and/or can't do and to give them their natural rights and freedoms.
How can the Constitution be changed over time?
The Constitution is a "living document," which means that if something happens in the future, they can add an amendment or bill.
What rights are protected by the First Amendment?
The freedoms of speech, religion, press, assembly, and petition.
Write the major powers of each of the 3 branches of government.
Legislative Branch- makes laws, can override presidential veto with 2/3 majority, confirms executive appointments, ratifies treaties, can declare war, can impeach and remove President, can overrule judicial decision, approves appointment for judges, and can impeach and remove judges.
Executive Branch- carries out laws, can veto a bill, can propose laws, negotiates foreign treaties, appoints federal judges for lifetime, can grant pardons to federal offenders.
Judicial Branch- interprets laws, can declare acts of Congress unconstitutional, can declare executive actions unconstitutional.
At the Constitutional Convention (1787), the Great Compromise resolved the issue of Congressional representation by...
creating a two-house Congress.
The first ten amendments were added to the Constitution to...
protect individual freedoms from governmental power
At the Constitutional Convention of 1787, conflicts between states with large populations and states with small populations resulted in the creation of...
a bicameral (two-house) legislature
When census numbers show changes in a state's total population, what is likely to be affected in the state?
representation in the United States House of Representatives
Some citizens held a public meeting to discuss concerns about their local government. In taking this action, they exercised their right to...
1. bear arms
2. a jury trial
3. freedom of assembly
4. an attorney
3. freedom of assembly
What is the first step in the impeachment process for removing a president from office?
1. conducting a trial by the Supreme Court
2. holding a hearing before the full Senate
3. replacing the president with the vice president.
4. bringing charges against the President by the House of Representatives
4. bringing charges against the President by the House of Representatives.
One similarity between the New York State Constitution and the United states Constitution is that each contains a provision allowing for...
1. a declaration of war
2. the taxation of citizens
3. an establishment of post offices
4. the coinage of money
2. the taxation of citizens
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