Pompeii

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Significance of Pompeii
It is very well preserved, as it was covered in ash (NOT lava!) from a volcanic eruption in 79 AD
Ash scatter pattern of Vesuvius
Ash was blown in a southeast direction, directly toward Pompeii
pumice and ash buried victims, and later plaster molds were made of the hollows were bodies have decayed
lapillus
this type of rock is essentially pumice, and it was the base layer of volcanic stratigraphy
it was porous and could float
fell like snow on Pompeii from eruption
Why did people die in basements at Pompeii?
They took shelter there from the eruption, but toxic gases later settled in and killed them
How did the ash preserve everything?
Because it was hot enough to kill microorganisms but not hot enough to destroy remains
City plan of Pompeii-what type of city was it NOT?
Like Tarquinia, it was NOT founded
the city is most famous for its unique houses
It was not originally a Roman city (It was Oscan)
Forum at Pompeii
It is a large rectangle of commercial function
Consists of the Temple of Apollo, a Capitolium dedicated to Jupiter, and other structures such as markets and a Curia
Why are forums important to Roman cities
They are very important for commercial functions
Corinthian Architecture
defined by the capitals of the building having leads shooting out of them (this OPPOSES ionic swirls or Doric)
At this time, temples move away from terracotta construction and towards marble
Theater at Pompeii
Aspects, differences to other theaters
'theater district'
-Roman cities tend to lag behind Greek cities in this aspect
-Has the basics: cavea, orchestra, and stage
-But the stage backdrop has become much more elaborate
-Instead of being built on a hill, the slope needed for cavea is artificially created w soil and has a large retaining wall
-there is now a 'theater district' where economic activities begin to revolve around theater production
Amphitheater at Pompeii
significance-what happened here?
-constructed in early 1st century BCE
-significance: Pompeii's amphitheater is one of the earliest that we know of
Oval shaped structure
Key: the shows that took place here had much more gore and involved blood--this included things like gladiator fights, capital executions, animal fights, etc
Bath houses at Pompeii
bathing was an essential part of Roman life
communal bathing in this case
token admission is charged to citizens, city must cover costs of bath house however
Houses at Pompeii: Basic aspects and significance
the houses at Pompeii illustrate the classic model of housing
there is block after block of town houses, lined up side by side, sharing walls
A classic Roman arrangement of a house often consisted of entering the home through a ________. What did this have in the middle of it? Why?
courtyard--there was a hole in the roof to let in rain and had a drain to provide a water source. It also provided light and air circulation
This sunken in area was called an 'impluvium'--Latin for 'it rains in it'
atrium
atrium is a synonym for courtyard. It is a central room in the house, filled with memorabilia, war decorations, fancy things
tablinum
3 sided room that opens directly into atrium
where the 'master of the house' would conduct business
something of an office
peristylium
an additional courtyard in the house
often only rich people had this in the home
House of the Faun
the largest house in Pompeii
characterized by 2 atriums, and 2 peristyliums
marbled mosaic on the floor of the tablinum
large atriums with central statues
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