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63 terms

Patho final study guide

STUDY
PLAY
A nurse is caring for a patient who cannot clot. Which end product of the clotting cascade is the patient unable to make?
Fibrin
Lymphadenopathy is characterized by what?
Enlarged lymph nodes
After a myocardial infarction, the nurse cares for the impaired ventricular function because:
The resulting ischemia leads to hypoxic injury and myocardial cell death
If there is a backflow of blood this is called:
Aortic regurgitation
Upon assessment the nurse finds a widened pulse pressure and throbbing peripheral pulses. Which valve disorder does the nurse expect?
Aortic regurgitation
The most common composition of a renal stone is:
Calcium
The most important factor in renal calculus formation is __________
urine pH
The most common symptom that would occur with renal calculus formation is:
Flank pain
A 25 year old female presents with burning urination and is diagnosed with a UTI. What organism is the most likely cause of this?
E. Coli
Symptoms of a UTI include:
Burning sensation, urgency, pain, occasional blood in the urine
What are the signs, symptoms, and causes of acute cystitis?
Blood in the urine, flank pain, urine is cloudy
Delayed puberty is due to:
Slow maturation of that person
An 18 year old is diagnosed with dysmenorrhea. What symptoms will she most likely experience?
Painful menses
Polycystic ovary syndrome is the leading cause of _________ in the U.S.
Infertility
The most common cause of yeast vaginitis is ______
Candida albicans
The treatment for endometriosis is suppressing _______
Ovulation (by birth control, hormones, etc.)
HPV is associated with _____ cancer
Cervical
Gynecomastia is overdevelopment of _______ in males.
Breast tissue
______ is the most common bacterial STI in the U.S. and leading cause of infertility for both men and women
Chlamydia (is bacterial whereas herpes is viral)
Esophageal varices are the most common disorder associated with upper _______
Gastrointestinal bleeding
Hematochezia is bleeding from the _______
Rectum
The cardinal sign of pyloric stenosis caused by ulceration or tumors is ________
Vomiting
The most common clinical manifestation of a stress ulcer is _______
Bleeding
A 16-year-old female presents with abdominal pain in the right lower quadrant. Physical examination reveals rebound tenderness and a low-grade fever. A possible diagnosis would be:
Appendicitis
______ disrupts hypothalamic satiety signaling and promotes overeating and excessive weight gain and is a factor in the development of obesity
Leptin resistance
A 13-year-old female confides to her mother that she binge eats and induces vomiting to prevent weight gain. This disease is referred to as:
Bulimia nervosa (can cause esophageal varices due to bleeding & acidic damage)
Anorexia is classified as:
Starvation eating (eating barely enough to survive)
Anorexia can lead to ________ failure
Cardiac
Both bulimia nervosa & anorexia can cause:
Malabsorption
What are the manifestations of the icteric phase of hepatitis?
Jaundice, dark urine, enlarged liver
Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder wall usually cause by:
Gallstones (these cause pain)
The cardinal signs of small bowel obstruction are _______ and ________.
Vomiting & Distention (of the abdomen)
A 70-year-old female with osteoporosis fractures her leg at a location of preexisting abnormality. She reports that the fracture occurred following a minor fall. Which of the following best describes the fracture?
Pathologic
Pathologic fractures can occur due to: ________ or a pre-existing fracture that has _______
Preexisting pathology, re-fractured
A 12-year-old female hurts her ankle while playing basketball. Tests reveal that she tore a ligament. TJ condition is known as a:
Sprain
A 35-year-old female suffers a broken clavicle following a motor vehicle accident. X-ray reveals that bone surfaces in the joint partially lost contact with each other. This condition is called:
Subluxation
The most important and clinically useful measurement in rhabdomyolysis is serum _______
Creatine kinase
Osteoporosis is due to an increase in bone _______
Reabsorption
Osteoporosis can be attributed to decreased _____
Estrogen levels (and Calcium)
Patients with osteoporosis are at risk for _______
Bone fractures
What is the primary cause of osteomyelitis?
A Staphylococcus infection
In osteomyelitis what happens to the periosteum?
It gets inflamed
Treatment for osteomyelitis is:
antibiotics for 30 days
Degenerative joint disease is cause by:
degeneration & loss of articular cartilage
What is the first line of treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA)?
Methotrexate
RA is thought to be an _______ disease
autoimmune
Inflammation of RA starts in the ______
Synovial membrane
______ is characterized by diffuse pain, fatigue, and point tenderness
Fibromyalgia
_________ are a collection of infected hair follicles and usually occur on the back of the neck, the upper back, and the lateral thighs.
Carbuncles
_____ are at greater risk for developing keloids
African Americans
Irregular scar formation is due to irregular _____ and ______ formation
Fibroblast activity & Collagen
The diagnosis is pityriasis rosea, and this disorder is cause by a:
Virus
People who have had chicken pox, now have a ______ virus in their system, which can cause ______
Herpes zoster, shingles
A 50-year-old male recently underwent a liver transplant & is taking immunosuppressive drugs. He now has pain & vesicular eruptions on the face and trunk. He reports that he had chickenpox as a child. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
Herpes zoster
Tinea corposis (ringworm) is a _____ infection of the skin
Fungal
Candidiasis is ______ by the use of systemic antibiotics because the antibiotics ______ the normal flora
exacerbated (intensified), eliminate
(this can cause a yeast infection)
A 20-year-old female presents with vaginal itch and thin-walled pustular lesions. She is diagnosed with candidiasis. This condition is caused by a(n):
yeast
Urticarial lesions are mediated by the _____ response
Histamine
______ is manifested by hardening of the skin
Scleroderma
Which skin lesion is the most serious form of skin cancer?
Malignant melanoma
A male is experiencing frontotemporal hair recession. He is diagnosed with male patterned baldness which is a form of ____
Alopecia
Superficial partial thickness burns leave the ______ & _____ sensors in tact
Tactile & pain
Deep partial thickness burns are characterized by a _______ appearance
Waxy-white appearance (the skin is gone)