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APUSH NDCL mid-term study guide
Terms in this set (111)
Native Americans prior to 1492
(Mexico and peru and stuff)Were viewed as inferior to the spaniards. Counted on agriculture especially corn. Mostly the incas and the Aztecs had sophisticated civilizations(cultivation of maize). Built elaborate cities based on commerce. Aztecs routinely made human sacrifices (North America-woodlands)developed political and organizational skills to sustain a military alliance with its neighbors and Europe.for the most part they were small scattered and impermanent settlements Women tended to the craps well men hunted fist and gathered fuel. This pattern of life frequently conferred substantial authority on women. This pattern of life frequently conferred substantial authority on women. In North America native people including the Iroquois's developed matrilineal cultures, in which power and possessions passed down the female side of the family line unlike the Europeans who had paternal lines
Portuguese & Spanish exploration
settled in South America, Mexico,Central America, and southern parts of the U.S. They wanted God, gold, and glory. They forced Indians to find gold and they used the encomienda system for "christianizing" the Indians
Exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between the old and the new world
The spanish government's way to give indians to certain colonists in return for the promise to christianise them. Part of a larger scale plan to subdue Indian tribes in the West Indies and on North American mainland.
pueblo Revolt (Pope's Revolt)
Pueblo Indian rebellion that drove spanish settlers from New Mexico
Patterns of British colonization
settled in the north east/ New England area and parts of the Caribbean.settled there because they wanted gold. Secondly the pilgrims and the puritans settled there because of religious persecution.
American system of slavery
would trade and sell slaves for money. They were not citizens and had not rights (dred Scott) mostly in the south because of the cash crops that needed a lot of labor to collect(cotton and tobacco)
Chesapeake Colonies (Virginia and Maryland)
of Virginia, later the Commonwealth of Virginia, and Province of Maryland, later Maryland, both colonies located in British America and centered on the Chesapeake Bay.Chesapeake had a crop economy that was based on tobacco
British Colonies in West Indies
British were fighting with Spain birthday released with their distractions in the dutch provinces by the 1600s they had several west Indian islands including a part of Jamaica.
New England Colonies
The new England colonies included the Connecticut colony the road Island colony the Providence plantations Massachusetts Bay colony providence of New Hampshire they were a part of the 13 colonies
English Protestant reformers who sought to purify the church of england of catholic rituals and creeds. Some of the most devout puritans that only visible saints should be allowed to attend church.
The Great Awakening (Protestant Evangelism)
Religious revival that swept the colonies. Participating ministers, most notable jonathan Edwards & George whitefield, placed an emphasis on direct, emotive spirituality.
Diversity in Middle Colonies
Pennsylvania was one of the most diverse colonies in the middle colonies they welcomed many religions they welcomed European protestants and send pamphlets to Germany promising cheap land there are many Dutch settlers they interacted well with the Native Americans there was freedom of thought. New netherland and New amsterdam was located there
Indians were not happy with dutch treatment,new england was hostile to the dutch, the dutch dispatched a small military expedition in 1655(the dutch won), english saw dutch as intruders, dutch left culture
British imperial system
National system of weights and measures used officially in great Britain from 1824 until the adoption of the metric system beginning in 1965 the United States customary system of weights and measurements is derived from the British imperial units
economic theory that closely linked a nation's political and military power to its bullion reserves. Mercantilists generally favored protectionism and colonial acquisition as means to increase exports.
The unofficial policy of relaxed royal control over colonial trade and weak enforcement of navigation laws. Lasted from the glorious revolution to the end of the french and indian war
Atlantic slave trade
The transatlantic slave trade was the forced migration of 12 to 15 million people from Africa to the Western Hemisphere from the middle of the 15th century to the end of the 19th-century.
migrants who in exchange for trans atlantic passage, bound themselves to a colonial employer for a term of service (typically for 4-7 years) Their migration addressed the chronic labor shortage in the colonies and facilitated settlement.
Transatlantic print culture
Patterns of French colonization
Settled in Quebec not permanent settlements and only settled in Canada for the fur
French and Indian fur trade networks
new France contained something very valuable- the ever. Never pelt was valued for its warmth and for hats for Europeans to wear. French fur trappers ranged from the woods and waterways of North America in search of beavers. The voyagers recruited Indians into the fur business. drawbacks of fur trade include- Indians recruited into fur business were killed quickly by white mans disease and debauched by his alcohol also fur trapping went against many native Americans religions.
Seven Years' War (the French and Indian War)
Nine year war between the british and the french in north America. Resulted in the expulsion of the french in the north american mainland and helped spark the seven years war in Europe.
Rights of British subjects
for a while it was salutary neglect- but then parliament became stricter and it was what parliament says goes, parliament places many taxes/acts on the colonies such as the stamp act and the townshend acts. This angered the colonists they felt their personal rights were being taken away.
Liberty Independence movement
also known as the sons of liberty- patriotic groups that played central role against the stamp act and enforcing non importation agreements.
took place between 1765 and 1783 during which colonists in the Thirteen American Colonies rejected the British monarchy and overthrew the rule of great Britian and founded the united states
republic definition. A form of government in which power is explicitly vested in the people, who in turn exercise their power through elected representatives. Today, the terms republic and democracy are virtually interchangeable, but historically the two differed.
Ideas of the Enlightenment-referred to as the age of reason,embraced the notion that humanity could be improved through rational change. The Enlightenment produced numerous books, essays, inventions, scientific discoveries, and laws It emphasized individualism and reason over tradition.
American colonists who oppose the revolution and maintained their loyalty to the king sometimes referred to as Tories
a person who vigorously supports their country and is prepared to defend it against enemies or detractors. They were on the opposite side of the British during the civil war
Thomas Paine's Common Sense
Thomas paine's pamphlet urging the colonies to declare independence and establish a republican government. The widely read pamphlet helped convince colonist to support the revolution.
Declaration of Independence
The formal pronouncement of independence drafted by Thomas Jefferson and approved by Congress the declaration allowed Americans to appeal for foreign aid and served as an inspiration for later revolutionary movements worldwide.
20th-century term for an attitude toward women's roles present in the emerging United States before, during, and after the American Revolution.
Articles of Confederation
The first American Constitution that established the United States as a loose confederation of states under a week national Congress was not granted the power to regulate commerce or collect the tax. The first American Constitution that established United States as a loose Confederation of states under a week national Congress was not guaranteed the power to regulate commerce or collected tax
included all the land of the United States west of Pennsylvania and northwest of the Ohio River. It covered all of the modern states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, as well as the northeastern part of Minnesota.
created a policy for administering the Northwest Territories it included a path to statehood and forbade the expansion of slavery into the territories
A document that embodies the fundamental laws and principles by which the United States is governed. It was drafted by the Constitutional Convention and later supplemented by the Bill of Rights and other amendments.
Constitutional arrangement in which power is distributed between a central government and subdivisional governments, called states in the United States. The national and the subdivisional governments both exercise direct authority over individuals.
Separation of Powers
an act of vesting the legislative, executive, and judicial powers of government in separate bodies.
Bill of Rights
Popular term for the first 10 amendments of the U.S. Constitution the amendments secure key rights for individuals and reserve the states all powers not explicitly delegated or prohibited by the constitution
uprising in France against the monarchy from 1789 to 1799 which resulted in the establishment of France as a republic. An example of the French Revolution is the storming of the Bastille by the French citizens.
George Washington's Farewell Address
Washington advised against permanent alliances DID NOT oppose all alliances but favored temporary ones and advised against political parties
proponents of it 1787 Constitution they favored a strong national government arguing that the checks and balances in the new constitution with safeguard people's liberties
Led by Thomas Jefferson believed people should have political power liked strong state government's emphasized agricultural and a strict interpretation of the Constitution they wanted to help the French in the French revolutionary war and opposed the national bank favorite high tariffs and international improvements
review by the US Supreme Court of the constitutional validity of a legislative act
acquisition of the Louisiana territory from France the purchase more than double the territory of the United States opening the vast tracts for settlement with
created by Henry Clay a leader in the house of reps, his plan consisted of three parts
1. Protective tariffs
2. A national bank
3. Internal improvements
By 1816 ⅔ were in place (protective tariffs and national bank) internal improvements left up to the states
(1785-1787) territories accquiured by the federal government from the states, encompassing land northwest of the Ohio River, east of the Mississippi River, and south of the Great Lakes; the well organized management and the sale of the land in the territories under the land ordinances of 1785 and 1787 established a precedent for handling future land acquisition
Missouri wanted to be admitted as a slave state, but the House passed the Tallmadge amendment: no more slaves could be brought to Missouri. Southerners saw the Tallmadge amendment as a threat to sectional balance and overthrew it in Senate.
The North dominated the House, but the North and South were equal in the Senate (11 free states and 11 slave states).
In 1820, Congress agreed to admit Missouri as a slave state, but made free Maine (once part of Massachusetts) a separate state. Also prohibited all slavery in Louisiana Purchase territory north of 36'30 (the southern boundary of Missouri),
Significance: Put forth the issue of slavery, and the sectional balance. Also set a precedent for compromise to keep things equal in the Senate. This compromise would be broken in 34 years, when more land would be acquired for the United States. This compromise temporarily pushed the slavery issue away.
rise in democratic society, hero of the age self-made man (more common men in politics) democracy spread due to new suffrage laws, changes in political parties and campaigns, improved education, increased in newspaper circulation
Participatory democracy-by the 1830s universal male suffrage, party nominating conventions, popular election of the president, two party-system/right of the third party, spoils system/rotation of office
political party led by Thomas Jefferson; it feared centralized political power, supported states' rights, opposed Hamilton's financial plan, and supported ties with France. It was heavily influenced by a agrarian interests in the southern states believed the people should have political power, favored strong state governments, emphasized agriculture, favored strict interpretation of the constitution, were pro-french, opposed national bank, and opposed protective tariff
political party that had no stand on slavery, was elected because people did not want to rock the boat and have war, An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats, stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements
Restrictive anti-indian policicies
Indian policies- Indian Removal Act (1830) - required Native tribes in Georgia to move west of the Mississippi River, Jackson ignored the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia and Native Americans were forced to move -> Trail of Tears
economy based off of goods produced lees homemade goods like clothes
transformed country's subsistence economy of scattered farms and tiny workshops into a national network of industrial and commerce
helped with market economy and factory boom, made for mass production they were practical and identical that they will fit into any assembly of the same type
used for sewing speed and made more efficient the process of making textiles out of cotton
Steamboats: people could now in large degree defy wind, wave, tide, and downstream, current
Steam engines: power factory machinery (mills and printing press), influence location (near water source)
Henry Clay developed a plan for profitable home markets called the American System in 1824. It enforced a protective tariff to get funding for transportation improvements. These improvements would be the construction of better roads and canals. This would allow industrialization to prosper since the raw materials of the South and West could easily and inexpensively get to the North and East to be manufactured. The manufactured goods could then be shipped back out to the South and West.
Erie canal was a key canal linked Hudson River to Five Great Lakes which resulted in factory booms in cities along canal
created greater mobilization, jobs, quicker transportation of goods, which resulted in overall boom to industrialization and economy
a system for transmitting messages from a distance along a wire, especially one creating signals by making and breaking an electrical connection created better and quicker communication
caused from the increased immigrants from Germany and Ireland fear of immigrants taking over you jobs success, etc
based on hostility to immigrants; motivated by ethnic tensions and religious bias; considered immigrants as despots overthrowing the American republic; feared anti-Catholic riots and competition from low-paid immigrant workers
Second Great Awakening-
a wave of roaring revivals during the early decades of the 19th century. It was one of the most momentous episodes in history; many converted souls, shattered and reorganized churches inspired prison reform, temperance cause, women's movement, and crusade to abolish slavery of American religion women were enthusiasts gave women rights to pray in public yay go us!
Romantic beliefs of human perfectibility-
hyper-rational Enlightenment caused from a rise of nationalism after WAr of 1812 romanticism emphasized nature of civilization, intuition over calculation, self over society.
women could not vote, could legally be beaten by her husband, her property passed to her husband women wanted breathe freedom, lead to decrease in marriages "cult of domesticity" (women's place is in home) push for women to work wanted to tear down bars that separated them from the public world of men Women's right convention at Seneca Falls declared all men and women equal demanded ballot for females Seneca Falls launched women's rights movement which was eventually eclipsed by slavery.
anti-slavery push for no slavery end of slave trade and no expansion of slavery
Art, architecture, and literature that reflects the national culture- Emotion, expression, and experimentation key values
Institution of slavery-
Africans were sent over to USA, sold, considered property to owners, and did work for no pay often picking cotton. They had no rights and could be beaten for misbehavior.
Demands of cultivating southern cotton-
"Cotton is KIng" huge boom in economy with England buying ou cotton farmers wanted more land and more slaves for more cotton and more money
Internal slave trade
trading of slaves throughout states like they were objects
Free African Americans -
were not slaves, lived in urban areas. The relatively specialized economies of the cities provided free people of color with opportunities to become carpenters, coopers (barrel makers), barbers, and even small traders
sparekd by women's rights movements, was the movement to get rid of slavery more common in north
Anti-black sentiment in popular and political culture-
Minstrel Shows - variety shows using "blackface"
U.S territorial expansion -
Manifest destiny and Mexican American war
America's God given right to own from sea to sea
we wanted CA Mexico would not give us CA. Polk wanted peace, Treaty of Guadalupe granted us CA and TX and it helped prepare generals for civil war new land caused debates over whether or not it would have slavery conclusion: Compromise of 1820, CA-free TX-slave, and Fugitive slave laws
Controversy over slavery in the territories
Compromise of 1850-
An agreement between the North and South dealing with the land gained from the Mexican War. North gets California as a free state while south gets a tighter Fugitive Slave Act. New Mexico and Utah Territory is based on popular sovereignty.
2 territories slavery determined by popular vote repealed MI compromise
End of the second party system-
Federalists: favored stronger central government, supported by upper-class, merchants and bankers, and Pro-British, loose interpretation of the Constitution
Democratic-Republicans: states-rights, supporter by lower and middle classes, farmers, Pro-French, strict interpretation of the Constitution
Both parties developed out of Hamilton's Financial Plan and the French Revolution
Led by Andrew Jackson, the "Common Man": against BUS and other "Elite" organizations
Anti-Andrew Jackson; favored stronger federal government, internal improvements
political party formed in 1854 in response to the Kansas-Nebraska Act; it combined remnants of Whig, Free Soil, and Know-Nothing Parties as well as disgruntled Democrats. Although not abolitionist, it sought to block the spread of slavery in the territories. It also favored tariffs, homesteads, and a transcontinental railroad.
Debates over slavery State's rights-
Kansas in fights slavery vs. antislavery. Kansas was a free stae, Missouri people came over to vote in KA legislature election slavery supporters won election, civil war started slavery
lawyer, few enemies honest Abe favored by the people great leader became president wanted to restore union as first priority
Abraham Lincoln's free-soil party-
against slavery and especially expansion of slavery
Dred Scott Decision-
Scott (slave) sueing Stanford (owner) conclusion scott was property not a citizen so he did not have the right to sue this decision threatened to entirely recast political policies that they thus so far prevented civil war, cancelled comprises
Election of 1860-
Ab Lincoln republican party against John C. Breckinridge Southern Democratic John Bel Constitutional Union/Whig
Linc did not win popular vote but did win electoral South seceded when he was elected scared their slaves would be taken away
scared their slaves would be taken away the south succeeded
Freed slaves in all states except border states
Officially Freed Slaves and gave men freedom to vote
This "System" consisted of three mutually reinforcing parts: a tariff to protect and promote American industry; a national bank to foster commerce; and federal subsidies for roads, canals, and other "internal improvements" to develop profitable markets for agriculture.
1.What were the different reasons for European exploration? Focus on the Spanish, English, and French. How were they similar? How were they different? What were the overall characteristics of the Europeans?
Portuguese & Spanish exploration reasons: wanted God, Gold, and Glory.(forced indians to work and find gold for them)
French reasons: they settled in Quebec because it was a good area for fur trade(which would make them rich)
English reasons: Tried to find Gold in new England, also the puritans and the Pilgrims left because of religious persecution.
They are all similar because in one way or another they were all searching for gold/money.
English and french were similar because some of the english left because of religious persecution. And the french were late explore because of religious conflict between catholics and protestants.
2. How did the Native Americans and European explorers interact early on? Did this change over time? What were the different viewpoints, attitudes, and cultural beliefs?
Spanish and Portuguese- The Spanish were very harsh and made the native americans work for them, forcing them to find gold and harming them if they did not find the gold
they would torture the indians, things changed to the encomienda system- where a family would 'adopt" a native american and christianize them in exchange for working for them. Spanish thought the native americans were lesser than them because they did not have the technology they did. The native americans in north america favored the french more that the British because the french at the time were not settling down permanently and forcing them to move out of there home land unlike the British. Puritans wanted to convert Indians These relationships did not change much; became less violent but still did not get along. America continued to run the native americans out of their homes . Ex trail of tears.
3. What was the Columbian Exchange? What were the positive and negative effects from this global exchange? Why is it so significant in both American history and world history?
the Colombian exchange was an Exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between the old and the new world. It was bad because many nave americans who had never experienced the diseases from the old world were very susceptible to them and many, many people died. But is was good because it introduced the native americans and the people from the old world to new plants and animals. The old world introduced horses to the new world. Also crops from the new world helped feed the old world. It impacted there lives because they gained new knowledge on farming and other things. It is also impactful because it created the need for slavery. and created trade between our two lands. It is very significant to both american and world history because if the exchange never happened, many of the plants animals we see today in america and in the old world would not be
there if it was not for the exchange.
4. What was the Great Awakening and what was its impact? What role did Deism and Protestant Evangelism have on the time period/movement?
did this case have?
The Great Awakening (Protestant Evangelism) was a Religious revival that swept the colonies. Participating ministers, most notable jonathan Edwards & George whitefield, placed an emphasis on direct, emotive spirituality. Deism was a belief that there was a god but the god does not intervene in the universe. This worried many preachers/ religious leaders because people had stopped going to church. so they began to preach and sermon to the people. they would preach stuff like- you had to have a relationship with god to gain salvation and if not you would burn in hell. The sermons were very convincing. This movement impacted the period because church attendance rose significantly, also many more individual parties such as Congregationalists, Presbyterians and Baptists increased. Also Protestant christianity became one of the most prominent religions in america. It was the first mass movement, and contributed to americanism.
5. What was Bacon's Rebellion and what impact did it have on the American colonies in the late 1800s? What does this rebellion demonstrate about the early American Colonies?
Bacon's Rebellion was an armed rebellion in 1676 by Virginia settlers led by Nathaniel Bacon against the rule of Governor William Berkeley. former indentured servants who were forced into the backcountry in search of land broke out of control The impact of it initiated the principle of the consent of the people. This showed how the people of the early Americas resented control.
6. Why did the colonial labor system change? Consider the role of the following: Encomienda system, British slave system, indentured servants, and regional differences.
The Encomienda system changed because the native americans were very susceptible to the white men diseases and would die easily. Secondly it was easy for them to rebel because thy knew the land. So they changed to African america slaves. Britain Would ship over the slaves from Africa. because they were not susceptible to the diseases and it was not easy for them to rebel, and if they did it would be nearly impossible to escape back to Africa. However this was very expensive. So they used indentured servants, but this did not work out because the servants were not given what they were promised, so they reverted to slavery. The north did not need slaves like the south because, they mostly did not have large plantations. The north had jobs like ship building which needed a very skilled craftsman, and other jobs that used craftsmen. At the time slaves were not capable of that at the time. Also the south did not have to pay for their labor which upset the north.
7. Why were there regional differences between the British colonies? Describe in detail the societies and economies of both New England and Chesapeake colonies.
New England colonies colonies left Europe because of religious persecution so there for they were very modest. Families immigrated here and the economy was based on industry. The Chesapeake colonies-many who immigrated there were men not families. Immigrated to the americas for gold, and money was the focus of their life so they planted cash crops. They needed africans from the slave trade to farm all the land.
8. What role did the French and Indian War have on Britain's salutary neglect? Why type of people would have felt the most impassioned by this? What other events lead to American Independence?
When the fighting broke out, the British was practicing salutary neglect because the colonies were making them money so there was no reason to tax them. Once the war was over the British needed to tax the colonies on everything to gain back money from the war. This angered the colonists. The British needed help from the colonists, and they fought. The colonists felt they had fouhgt bravely alongside the British, this raised there self esteem(but British thought they were lazy because they did not contribute financially.) When Britain won there naval dominance was established. There were many other events that caused to the tension such as the stamp act, sugar act, town shed act, and the navigation act. All of these acts angered the colonists so they boycotted British goods or did not pay the taxes, they felt their rights were being neglected. This caused a huge wedge between British and the colonies
9. What were some of the main concerns about the ratification of the new Constitution? What political ideologies emerged as a response? What did the two sides believe?
were scared decontrolled by one leader
Political differences- The Virginia plan created by Randolph, it was favored by more populous states and had a two-house legislature where state's population determined representation in both houses. New Jersey Plan created by paterson, it was favored by smaller states and had one-house legislature in which each state cast one vote. the comprimise consisted of a two-house Congress consisting of Senate where each state had two members and House of Representatives and apportioned according to state's population. Some people wanted slavery, also the and anti federalists wanted a bill of rights but the federalists felt that the rights were already sufficiently protected.
10. How did the beliefs of Thomas Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans come to fruition during the early 1800s? What emerging events began to contradict this?
Thomas Jefferson was a democratic republican. But the National bank was maintained and he purchased the Louisiana land from the french even when the constitution did not specifically say he was allowed to do so. Bot of theses things contradicted the strict interpretation.
11. What was the significance of the Hartford Convention and the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions? How will this influence the idea of nullification with later events?
a secret meeting in Hartford, Connecticut, of Federalist delegates from Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont who were dissatisfied with President. James Madison's mercantile policies and the progress of the War of 1812 ("Mr. Madison's War"), policies were created such as the alien and sedation acts-were passed by the Federalist Congress in 1798 and signed into law by President Adams. These laws included new powers to deport foreigners as well as making it harder for new immigrants to vote, that angered many people. Also there was a long resentful mindset over the balance of political power that gave the South, particularly Virginia, effective control of the national government. The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions said that the states had the rights to refuse or nullify any law from the government. This meeting basically destroyed the federalists they were seen as selfish and having a sectional mindset.
12. What were some of the main differences between the Democratic Republicans and the Federalists? What historical evidence/events highlight the differing ideologies?
Democratic republicans-beloved people should have the power, believed in strong state governments, in favor of agriculture instead of manufacturing, strict interpretation of the constitution, opposed national bank, pro french, tax states individual states for their debt. Thomas Jefferson.
Federalists- supported the constitution, believed in strong national/central government, loose interpretation, were not in favor of the bill of rights, in favor of manufacturing and trade, for national bank, anti french, tax everyone equally. Alexander hamilton and john adams.
13. Explain the presidency of Andrew Jackson. How was he seen as a representative of the common man and as a "tyrant" abusing executive power? Who formed in opposition to Jackson?
He was seen as a common man because of his war hero title. He also expanded voting rights. was against increased federal spending and the national debt He was seen as a tyrant because he vetoed many bills. was designed to protect American industry from cheaper British commodities. Opposition to the rise of taxes on raw materials, like cotton and tobacco, in the South led to the Nullification Crisis. The south declared this tariff unconstitutional. The whig party formed in opposition of Andrew jackson.
14. How did the U.S. economy change in the early 1800s? How does the Industrial Revolution impact the United States?
agriculture remained strong, but people began to be more interested in industrialization, people began to expand west, Factories spread, and infrastructure was built, which increased peoples dependance on each other for goods, woman became more involved.
15. Explain the significance and impact of early social reform movements. Focus on the Second Great Awakening, the abolitionist movement, and the women's rights movement.
the great awakening- Protestant religious revival movement during the early 19th century in the United States. The movement began around 1790, gained momentum by 1800 and, after 1820, membership rose rapidly among Baptist and Methodist congregations whose preachers led the movement. "added new values to the mix. Among these were the beginnings of the feminist movement, as well as the strengthening of the abolitionist movement. As was already mentioned, the churches affected in this movement began granting more freedoms and powers to women, as well as giving them spiritual worth. On the idea of slavery, several churches, including Presbyterians, Methodists and Baptists, split into Northern and Southern sects. These churches parting foreshadowed the future parting of the United States into the North and South. The Second Great Awakening also helped give rise to Evangelicalism, which had already been growing."(avhs-apush 1)
abolitionism- the belief that slavery should not be spread and that it should be abolished. This split the union and created sectionalist tension. Romans rights movement-legal, economic, and social equality for women. Started at the seneca falls convention. Woman gained more political rights, and more property rights, and we also gained the 19th amendment which gave us the right to vote.
16. What were the main reasons for opposing slavery? Who held those beliefs? How was slavery justified? Who provided this justification and why?
Main reasons for opposing slavery (mostly north) was that it was morally wrong, also the north did not like that the south did not have to pay for their labor. Slavey (peculiar institution) was justified by the south, saying that they needed to maintain there economy.
17. Explain immigration to the U.S. in the first part of the 19th century. What groups came over and why? Explain the opposition to immigration. Why were these beliefs held and what actions were taken?
Many immigrants came to america from Ireland, and Germany. The Irish came over because of the potato famine and were very poor. Thy took jobs in the factories- this boosted the industrial revolution. The Irish were not liked because they were catholics. The Germans were political refugees. Thy knew how to farm so they mostly settled in the midwest. Xenophobia- intense or irrational dislike or fear of people from other countries. Many people in the north did not like the immigrants because they were afraid they would steal their jobs. the people who were against immigrants were called nativists. People lashed out at the immigrants doing harmful things to the immigrants' schools and churches.
18. Why is the Election of 1860 a turning point? What role does South Carolina play? How were the state's actions justified by the South?
Abe Lincoln was the republican (sectionalist)candidate. When he was elected the south felt that slavery would be taken away so they sussed. This was justified because he was a sectionalist president. This formed the confederate states.
19. How did Abraham Lincoln justify military action at the beginning of the Civil War? What were reasons for fighting held by the North and the South? How did the purpose of the Civil War change? What events played a pivotal role in this change?
Lincoln justified his unconstitutional actions by saying that he was doing it to protect, preserve, and keep the union together. The north was fighting because they wanted to preserve the union. The south was fighting because they felt there rights were being abused. The reason for the war changed to abolishing slavery. this was seen through the emancipation proclamation.
20. Why was the Dred Scott decision so important? What was the case about? How did the justices decide and what was stated in the opinion? What impact did this case have?
The Dread Scott decision was where a slave tried to sue its owner because he was in a free state, but the court declared that slaves were not citizens and therefor could not sue. Also saying that slaves were property and the owners had the right to them no matter where they were. This ruling contradicts the Missouri compromise. This angered northers and they did not listen to the ruling and the south was angered that the north was not listening to the court ruling which added to the sectionalism
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