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The biology that deals with classification & naming is called...


This provided scientists with the means for sorting & grouping according to...


They can be sorted ether...

Physically: Shape, size, color, etc.
Chemically: Biochemistry and DNA sequence.

Who is considered the founder of modern Taxonomy?

Linnaeus. There are seven Taxa.

What are the seven Taxa of Classification?

It is Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species.

Binomial Nomenclature

The system of nomenclature using two terms, the first one indicating the genus and the second the species.


A scientific name of an organism contains two words (both in Latin). Both names must be in italics.

What are the Major Taxonomic Groups?

Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia

What is Monera?

Unicellular or colonial
Cell wall present
May be autotrophic or heterotrophic
Now divided into 2 separate kingdoms
Eubacteria: Bacteria (Ex: Escherichia coli)
Archaebacteria: Live in extreme environments such as volcanic hot springs, brine pools, & mud pools that do not contain oxygen.
(Ex: Methanogens, halophiles)

What is a Protista?

Unicellular or simple multicellular
Can have both plant and/or animal characteristics
3 Phyla
1) Protozoa
2) Algae
3) Slime molds

What is a Protozoa?

Animal like in their mode of nutrition (heterotrophs)
Single celled
Some form colonies, mostly free-moving
Examples: Amoeba, Paramecium, & Euglena

What is an Algae?

Plant-like in their mode of nutrition, contain chlorophyll (Autotrophs)
Unicellular or in colonies
Examples: Diatoms, Spirogyra, Green red & brown algae

What is a Fungi?

-Absorb digested food from their environment.
Secrete enzymes that digest food outside the organism.
-Unicellular or multicellular

What are examples of Fungi?

Yeast, Bread Mold, Mushrooms, Athletes Foot

What is a Plantae?

-2 phyla
1) Bryophytes
2) Tracheophytes

What is a Bryophytes?

-Lacks vascular or conducting tissue
-No true roots, stems or leaves
-Relatively short plants
-Grow in areas where there is an abundant supply of water.

What are examples of Bryophytes?

Mosse, Liverworts, Hornworts,

What is a Tracheophytes?

-Vascular tissue present (xylem & phloem)
-All the modern plants
-Can be spore dispersing or seed plants
-Seed plants divided into 2 groups (Gymnosperm and Angiosperm)

What are the two types of tracheophytes?

Gymnosperm and Angiosperm

What is an Animalia?

-Organ & organ system level of organization

What are the 9 phyla of Animalia?

1. Porifera
2. Cnidaria (Coelenterates)
3. Platyhelminthes
4. Nematodes
5. Annelids
6. Mollusks
7. Arthropods
8. Echinoderms
9. Chordates

What is a Phylum Porifera?

-Pores present
-Two cell layers only: ectoderm and endoderm
-Sessile (as adults)
-Filter nutrients from water drawn into a central cavity
-No nerve or muscle tissue
-Reproduce asexually by fragmentation
-Also reproduce sexually, are hermaphrodites

What is an example of a Phylum Porifera?


What are the characteristics of a Phylum Cnidaria (Coelenterates)?

-2 cell layers (ectoderm & endoderm)
-Hollow body cavity and one opening
-Have a gastrovascular cavity where extracellular digestion occurs
-Carry out intracellular digestion inside body cells in lysosomes
-Radial symmetry
-Contains stinging cells (cnidocytes) that produce nematocysts

What is an example of a Phylum Cnidaria (Coelenterates)?

Hydra, Jellyfish, Corals

What are the characteristics of Phylum Platyhelminthes?

-Bilateral symmetry
-Contains: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm
-Digestive cavity has only one opening
-Body cells can exchange nutrients and wastes by diffusion

What are examples of a Phylum Platyhelminthes?

Flatworm, Tapeworm

What are the characteristics of a Nematodes (Roundworms)

-Bilateral symmetry
-Many are parasitic

What is an example of a Nematodes (Roundworms)?

Trichinella (causes trichinosis)

What are the characteristics of a Phylum Annelids?

-Segmented body walls
-Tube within a tube body structure
-Digestive system contains a crop, gizzard, and intestine
-Blood contains hemoglobin and carries oxygen
-Bilateral symmetry
-Closed circulatory system

What are examples of a Phylum Annelids?

Earthworm, Leech, Slug

What are the characteristics of a Mollusks?

-Soft body often protected by a hard calcium containing shell
-Bilateral symmetry with three distinct body zones
1) Head-foot, which contains both sensory and motor organs
2) Visceral mass, which contains the organs of digestion, excretion, and reproduction
3) Mantle: secretes the shell
-Open circulatory system
-Most have gills and nephridia

What are examples of Mollusks?

Squid, Octopus, Slug, Clam, and Snail

What are the characteristics of Phylum Arthropods?

-Jointed appendages & legs
-Open circulatory system
-Segmented body
-Chitinous exoskeleton
-Malpighian tubules for removal of nitrogenous wastes, uric acid

What are the classes of a Phylum Arthropods?

-Crustacea (example: lobster)
-Insecta (example: grasshopper)
-Arachnida (example: spider)

What are the characteristics of Echinoderms?

-Sessile or slow moving
-Bilateral symmetry as an embryo but revert to the primitive radial symmetry as an adult
-Reproduce by sexual reproduction
-Can also reproduce by fragmentation and regeneration

Examples of Echinoderms are?

Sea Urchin, Starfish

What are the characteristics of Phylum Chordates?

-Possess dorsal nerve chord
-Internal skeleton (endoskeleton)
-Includes vertebrates

What are the classes of a Phylum Chordates?

Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Aves (birds), Mammals

What are examples of Phylum Arthropods?

Lobster, Spider, Grasshopper

What is the three domain classification system?

Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya (They came from one common ancestor.)

What are the characteristics of Domain Bacteria?

-Maybe aerobic or anaerobic
-Some are pathogenic
-Vital for genetic engineering
-May carry out conjugation (primitive sexual reproduction)
-Cell wall of peptidoglycan
-no introns (noncoding regions within the DNA)
-Some are photosynthetic
-Corresponds roughly to Eubacteria in old scheme

What are the characteristics of Domain Archaea?

-Includes extremophiles
1) Methanogens
2) Halophiles
3) Thermophiles
-Introns present in some genes

What are the characteristics of Domain Eukarya?

-All organisms have a nucleus and internal organelles
-Eukarya includes the four remaining kingdoms:
1) Protista
2) Fungi
3) Plantae
4) Animalia

What do the spores from slime mods form?

They form flagellate cells.

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