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Terms in this set (117)
This map was the first kind of map used that symbolized the moral and physical order of the universe. Used the trinity , Jerusalem centered world.
A map that detailed sailors how to plot a course from one seaport to another
Wrote the book "Geography." Summed up the best geographical information available in second century AD. Also gave precise locations of eight thousand places in Europe, North Africa, and Asia
Portuguese in Africa
This group of people marked the beginning of European expansion and originally desired to find gold in this place
Prince Henry the Navigator
This explorer's fundamental goal was to tap gold at its source, bypass the Moslem middlemen of the Maghrib and Sahara, and to win control of a trade against the infidel
Cortes and Bizzarro
Two explorers who conquered central and South America
The influx of bullion from the conquests causes this
Simony, not living in areas of jurisdiction, clerics
These were the abuses going on in the Catholic Church. Name the formal terms for individuals holding more than one office and giving positions in the church to their family
Hussites and Wallards
The defeat of these two groups of people strengthened the Catholic Church
Book of Romans
This is the book that Luther based his conclusions off of--such as sola fide
The phrase that describes that the word of God is authoritative and revealed alone in the Bible
The concept that splits Luther and Zwingli. Luther maintains it is the Real Presence while Zwingli denies it.
Embraced by Calvin that from eternity God has determined the salvation and reprobation of every man.
Council of Trent
This is the Catholic Council correcting the abuses of the church and finally putting in doctrine its beliefs as a response to Luther
Missionaries formed by Ignatius Loyola, a member of this society had to resign his will and intellect to the keeping of the general order and the pope, "to serve them willingly as a stick serves the hand it wields"
Princes that are both Catholic and Lutheran
In the states of Germany it is these individuals that are determining the religion of the respective lands they rule.
Western European warfare more restrained while Eastern European warfare is more violent
The differences in Western Europe and Eastern Europe in terms of warfare because one was more focused on religion while the other was more focused on gaining land.
Peace of Augsburg 1555
This peace allowed princes to determine religion within their own realm
Ottoman Empire, Poland, Russia
Three weak states that were not doing very much during Politics Early Modern State
This individual shaped Sweden overnight into a major power. Protestant reformation had infused the Swedes with crusading armor, and this person created self-reliant soldiers, militant chaplains and officers eager to plunder Sweden's neighbors
These were rising German states, and the first of these states listed gains the most
This state is twice overrun and devastated by Louis XIV, it also did not take advantage of 30 years war and then was crushed
Absolutism and Constitutionalism
Two types of government that begin coming in this age
Mazarin and Richelieu
These two individuals not only allowed for the French people to recover from their civil wars between the Huguenots and Catholics, they wanted to weaken local particularism, to strengthen central royal authority, and to enlarge French territory by means of aggressive foreign policy
This English King was replaced by William of Orange following the Glorious Revolution
Battle of Poltava
In this battle the Swedish were crushed by the Russians, and it was a victory of Peter I over the Swedes
This was one of the chief German states at the start of the 30 years war--defenestration of Prague
Christian of Denmark
This person attempted to invade the Holy Roman Empire on behalf of the Protestants, but had his butt kicked by Max of Bavaria at Battle of Luther
Known as the soldier of Fortune, sided with the Hapsburgs during the Bohemian revolt, and built a fabulous fortune in the process.
Denmark, Poland, Russia, Charles XII
Fighters in the Great Northern Wat
War of Spanish Secession
A Frenchman is about the become the Spanish King, yet other powers did not want France and Spain united. This war results and assures that France and Spain will never unify, and Philip V becomes the King of Spain
Nine Years War
Louis XVI pursues Northern Italy and Netherlands and it ends in a stalemate
Battle of Blenheim and Marlborough
This individual beat the French and Bavarians at this Battle
This country gained most from the Peace of Utrecht following the War of Spanish Secession
This city is known for fending off the Ottomans in 1683
Eugene of Savoy
This individual helps build the Austrian Empire and father was French, was a brilliant Austrian General.
Local Privileges/Traditional Rights
These were the impediments to the consolidation of state power/check on the power of consolidation of monarchs
Was the absolute monarch of France and brings French state directly under their control--pursues a program of political and cultural unity described as "one king, one law, one faith"
Local courts for each French region
These posts provided their purchasers with prestige, legal privileges, modest interest payments, and a legal right to conduct a specific public function.
Under this ruler the Junkers become state servants
This ruler compromised with reforms, and because the Magyars created a lack of unity within the state, this ruler integrated the Magyars and redivided empire into different districts
Because this ruler does not have heirs conflicts over secession arose that caused monarchs to weaken
Was a strong Russian leader who sought to establish a more centralized monarchy, generate a unified Russian culture, and impose a unified legal code
This British individual used his personal connections in politics. The first lord of the treasury and led to a period of equilibrium in 18th century English politics
English Financial System
Because of this strong system the English were able to borrow at lower rates. They controlled the debt and were able to borrow money
Poland, Russian, Netherlands
These three countries are experiencing rebellions and revolutions
Long Bow and Pike
These were two major military weapon advancements.
Considered the more useful of the military advancements because they can charge
This rank of people lost power in war because suddenly the peasantry can kill the calvary
Copper and Iron
Two most important metals in Renaissance warfare
This is used in the siege of Constantinople with Mahomet II
Venus and Mars
These Gods represent a manifestation of violence and temptress
Proletarianization of Military
This term describes the lower class beating up the upper class
This is how wealth was measured in Enlightenment society
Northern--> Great Plain
Bocage and Mountain
Three different types of ecosystem, but the northern fostered the best sense of community
This empire instituted agrarian reform that occurred under Joseph II
Two changes in the nobility in England
There more of an openness to new blood and a willingness to be taxed
Russia and Prussia
These two nations participated in the militarization of the nobility
London and Paris
These two cities, respectively, were the largest
This city demonstrated a notable exception to the decline of municipal self-government
Rise of population and health and nutrition
List of the two developments that occurred in Enlightened Economies
This was the most populous country
Decline in death rate by better food supplies
This caused the population to increase in Enlightened Europe
South Sea Company and John Laws Company
These were joint stock companies that caused prices to crash. It was bad for France and the French did not trust these types of companies again for a while
Out of 9.3 million slaves transported in total, this amount was transported in the 18th century
This country dominated the slave trade
Cuba and St. Dominic
These were the two major islands that were used for growing sugar
Agricultural Revolution/Enclosure Acts
These acts implemented caused small farms to become big farms and increased production
This is the big industry that will develop in England and change England. It also begins using cotton.
These individuals have a reputation for earning much and spending little. Very fluid class in the 16th Century and trade and industry served as the chief means by which they moved up in the social hierarchy.
This class of people wants to become nobles
This structure of society is declining as serfs are becoming renters and wage earners
This group of people are experiencing increasing incomes that are outpacing the increase in rent prices.
This philosopher argues that all heavenly bodies naturally fell toward the center of the universe and rested there, unless propelled by a mover in some other direction.
This individual visualized the sun rather than the earth as the immobile part of the universe.
He was the leading practical astronomer in the half century after Copernicus and held to the geocentric theory. Also tracked the positions of planets more systematically than had ever been done before and compiled a mass of astronomical observations
This person was Brahe's assistant but used Brahe's data to demonstrate beyond question the mathematical symmetry of Copernicus' heliocentric theory. Discovered that Mars, earth and other planets orbit elliptically around the sun
This person constructed a telescope of his own. He was struck by the difference between planets and stars. Distinguished between natural motion and violent motion. Tried to explain not why bodies move but how they move through space can be described as mathematical equations
One of the philosophers that championed the scientific revolution. Argued that the true scientist (unlike Aristotle) worked by the inductive method, moving from the particular to the general, from the specific experiments to axioms which in turn pointed the way to further experiments.
The other philosopher that championed the scientific revolution. He invented analytical geometry and perfected Galileo's law of inertia. Reduced nature to two absolutely distinct elements, mind and matter. The universe was continually filled with an infinite number of particles of matter
Sir Isaac Newton
This scientist deduced that the law of gravity must be universal force, equally affecting all celestial and terrestrial matter.
Cornerstone Enlightenment Belief
The belief in the essential goodness of human nature
This is the document of the Enlightenment era that was written by Diderot
Hume and Adam Smith
These were two Scottish philosophers
Religion and Science
These were the two fields that were considered to be clashing in nature
One of the founders of the "new philosophy." Known for his theory on rationalism
Also known for the 'new philosophy.' Known his skepticism
Important document written by Rousseau on the relationship between society and government
Dutch physician who argues that luxury is OK
Physiocracy ad Agriculture
This was the new economic view that emphasized the effective use of agriculture and land. Those who believed in this philosophy believed in a political economy based on commerce, sociability, and prosperity rather than scarcity, subsistence, and individual self-restraint
Balance of Power
The new system of relationships between countries
Peace of Utrecht
Following this treaty these five power arose: Russia, Prussia, Austria, Britain, and France. There was peace for two decades. This created a flexible system of changing the alliance between small powers in order to keep large countries from forming.
This country won a decisive victory in the 7 Years War. They also gain complete control of North America with exception of Florida. Takes conflict elsewhere like the Caribbean.
Warfare cost increasing
This is the key trend occurring in warfare.
This country had a large debt issue but also largest army in Europe. Combined with fiscal problems there are major issues.
This is the new focus on warfare and causes the precise execution in warfare.
Frederick William of Prussia
He was a military innovator
This person standardized weaponry that could fire faster and lighter.
A Renaissance word that designated toward the end of the fifteenth century a particular professional group of teachers and educators. Overall it denotes an educational and cultural program based on the study of the classics and colored by the notion of human dignity implicit in humanitas.
Known as the Father of Humanism
Ancient Classical Ages, Dark Ages and Renaissance
These are the three eras the Renaissance divides history into
These are the key source for the rediscovery of the classics
The key of this type of knowledge argues that God has created the world according to mathematical laws, thus we must build things geometrically right. The perfect shape is the circle.
One point perspective
This is the key development in art
Latin and Greek Classics
This is what images and subjects of paintings are coming from in Renaissance art.
Nobility and Merchant Orders
These are the types of people receiving education in humanist schools.
This is the characteristic of political organization from the contemporary world.
France, Spain, England
The first three states to become sovereign states
The Castilian officer of local government that was most nearly approaching the bureaucratic type
The Army Military
The second characteristic of the new monarchies. under feudalism this was financed privately, however the modern sovereign state begins to be the main administer of this.
Kings began using this to keep militaries and meet expenses.
This body of government controlled taxation and the funds of the state.
This King ringed the territories of France and under his empire the territories stretched from Vienna to Peru
Secretary and writer who revolutionized political thought for centuries to come. "The Prince"
Writes Utopia. Still unsure if he is mocking the Utopia world or is he is promoting it for Europe.
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