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32 terms

Structure of a Long Bone - Gross Anatomy

STUDY
PLAY
DIAPHYSIS
Diaphysis or shaft, makes up the most of the bone's length & is composed of compact bone. The diaphysis is covered & protected by a fibrous connective tissue membrane. ( Central not spongy)
PERIOSTEUM
Hundreds of connective tissue "perforating, or Sharpey's fiber secure the periosteum to the underlying bone. (membranes is bone).
EPIPHYSES
Are the ends of the long bone. Each epiphysis consists of a thin layer of compact bone.
ARTICULAR CARTILAGE
Instead of a periosteum, covers its external surface. The articular cartilage is glassy hyaline cartilage, it provides a smooth, slippery surface that decreases friction at join surfaces.
EPIPHYSEAL LINE
In adult bones, there is a thin line of bony tissue spanning the epiphysis that looks a bit different from the rest of the bone in that area. The epiphyseal line is a remnant of the epiphyseal plate (a flat plate of hyaline cartilage) seen in a young , growing bone & causes the lengthwise growth of a long bone.
EPIPHYSEAL PLATE
In adults the cavity of the shaft is primarily a storage area for adipose (fat) tissue. It is called the yellow marrow, or medullary, cavity.
YELLOW MARROW OR MEDULLARY, CAVITY
In infants this area forms blood cells, and "Red Marrow is found there.
RED MARROW
In adult bones, red marrow is confined to cavities in the spongy bone of flat bones & the epihyses of some long bones.
BONE MARKINGS
Reval where muscles, tendons, & ligaments were attached & where blood vessels & nerves passed.
BONE MARKING - A:
Projections, or processes, which grow out from the bone surface.
BONE MARKING - B:
Depressions, or cavities, which are indentations in the bone.
LONG BONE - A
Humerus of arm
SHORT BONE - B
Carpal of wrist
FLAT BONE - C
Sternum
IRREGULAR BONE - D
Vertebra
OSTEOCYTE
Mature bone cells found within the matrix in tiny cavities called lacunae. The lacunae are arranged in concentric circles called lamellae around central (Haversian) canals. Each complex consisting of central canal & matrix rings is called an Osteon or Haversian system.
CANALICULI
Tiny canals, that radiate outward from the central canals to all lacunae.
OSSIFICATION
The hyaline cartilage model is completely covered with bone matrix (bone collar) by bone forming cells called Osteoblast. Growing bones also must widen as they lengthen. This process by which bones increase in diameter is call appositional growth.
OSTEOCLAST
Giant bon destroying cells in bones, to break down bone matrix & release calcium ions into the blood. ( breaks down to blood & uses it).
BONE REMODELING
Is essential if bones are to retain normal proportions & strength during long bone growth as the body increases in size & weight. (If you dont use it, you loose it)
VERTEBRAL FORAMEN
Canal through which the spinal cord passes.
SHOULDER GIRDLE & PECTORAL GIRDLE
Consists of two bones - a calvicle & a scapula
SCAPULAE
"Shoulder blades", are triangular & are commonly called "wing" because they flare when we move our arms posteriorly.
CALVICLE
Is a slender, doubly curved bone. It attaches to the manubrium of the sternum medially (at its sternal end) & to the scapula laterally.
PELVIC GIRDLE
Is formed by tow coxal bones, or ossa coxae, commonly called "Hip bones".Together the scrum & the coccyx, the hip bones form the bony pelvis.
Note
Pelvic girdle & bony pelvis have slightly different meanings (pelvic girdle = 2 coxal bones; bony pelvis = 2 coxal bones, sacrum, & coccyx)
FIBROSE JOINT
united by fibrous tissue. In sutures, the irregular edges of the bones interlock & are bound tightly together by connective tissue fibers, allowing essentially no movement.
CARTIAGINOUS JOINT
Bone ends/parts united by cartlage. First Rib, Hyaline cartilate, Sternum
SYNOVIAL JOINTS
Bone ends are separated by a joint cavity containig synovial fluid. They account for all joints of the limbs. All synovial joints have 4 distinguishing features. ie; Joint Cavity, Articular, Synovial membrane, Fibrous Articular.
AMPHIARTHROSES
A slightly movable joint
DIARTHROSES
A freely movable joint
SYNARTHROSES
An immovable joint.