Diaphysis or shaft, makes up the most of the bone's length & is composed of compact bone. The diaphysis is covered & protected by a fibrous connective tissue membrane. ( Central not spongy)
Hundreds of connective tissue "perforating, or Sharpey's fiber secure the periosteum to the underlying bone. (membranes is bone).
Are the ends of the long bone. Each epiphysis consists of a thin layer of compact bone.
Instead of a periosteum, covers its external surface. The articular cartilage is glassy hyaline cartilage, it provides a smooth, slippery surface that decreases friction at join surfaces.
In adult bones, there is a thin line of bony tissue spanning the epiphysis that looks a bit different from the rest of the bone in that area. The epiphyseal line is a remnant of the epiphyseal plate (a flat plate of hyaline cartilage) seen in a young , growing bone & causes the lengthwise growth of a long bone.
In adults the cavity of the shaft is primarily a storage area for adipose (fat) tissue. It is called the yellow marrow, or medullary, cavity.
YELLOW MARROW OR MEDULLARY, CAVITY
In infants this area forms blood cells, and "Red Marrow is found there.
In adult bones, red marrow is confined to cavities in the spongy bone of flat bones & the epihyses of some long bones.
Reval where muscles, tendons, & ligaments were attached & where blood vessels & nerves passed.
BONE MARKING - A:
Projections, or processes, which grow out from the bone surface.
BONE MARKING - B:
Depressions, or cavities, which are indentations in the bone.
LONG BONE - A
Humerus of arm
SHORT BONE - B
Carpal of wrist
FLAT BONE - C
IRREGULAR BONE - D
Mature bone cells found within the matrix in tiny cavities called lacunae. The lacunae are arranged in concentric circles called lamellae around central (Haversian) canals. Each complex consisting of central canal & matrix rings is called an Osteon or Haversian system.
Tiny canals, that radiate outward from the central canals to all lacunae.
The hyaline cartilage model is completely covered with bone matrix (bone collar) by bone forming cells called Osteoblast. Growing bones also must widen as they lengthen. This process by which bones increase in diameter is call appositional growth.
Giant bon destroying cells in bones, to break down bone matrix & release calcium ions into the blood. ( breaks down to blood & uses it).
Is essential if bones are to retain normal proportions & strength during long bone growth as the body increases in size & weight. (If you dont use it, you loose it)
Canal through which the spinal cord passes.
SHOULDER GIRDLE & PECTORAL GIRDLE
Consists of two bones - a calvicle & a scapula
"Shoulder blades", are triangular & are commonly called "wing" because they flare when we move our arms posteriorly.
Is a slender, doubly curved bone. It attaches to the manubrium of the sternum medially (at its sternal end) & to the scapula laterally.
Is formed by tow coxal bones, or ossa coxae, commonly called "Hip bones".Together the scrum & the coccyx, the hip bones form the bony pelvis.
united by fibrous tissue. In sutures, the irregular edges of the bones interlock & are bound tightly together by connective tissue fibers, allowing essentially no movement.
Bone ends/parts united by cartlage. First Rib, Hyaline cartilate, Sternum
Bone ends are separated by a joint cavity containig synovial fluid. They account for all joints of the limbs. All synovial joints have 4 distinguishing features. ie; Joint Cavity, Articular, Synovial membrane, Fibrous Articular.