Chapter 9 Study Guide Timmons 8
What were three things that caused the War of 1812 and three effects or outcomes of the war?
Terms in this set (36)
Whom did the Republicans nominate for president and vice-president in 1800?
Thomas Jefferson (led) and Aaron Burr.
Why did the House of Representatives have to decide the election?
Both Jefferson and Burr received 73 votes.
What role did Alexander Hamilton play in the House vote?
Persuaded congressman Bayard to change his vote from Burr to Jefferson.
How did the 12th amendment change the electoral college?
The electoral college shall vote separately for the president and vice-president.
What were John Marshall's three principles of judicial review?
1) The Constitution is the supreme law of the land.
2) Laws cannot conflict with the Constitution.
3) The Judicial Branch must uphold the Constitution by nullifying laws against it.
Why was the right to use the Mississippi River vital to Western farmers?
Allowed farmers to ship their goods to markets on the east coast.
In 1802, why was this right at risk?
Spain secretly agreed to give New Orleans and the rest of Louisiana back to France.
What did Jefferson authorize Robert Livingston to do?
To purchase New Orleans and west Florida from France for $10 million.
Who was the leader of France?
Why did he change his mind about building an American empire?
The independence of Santo Domingo ruined his ability to use the island as a naval base from which he could control an American empire.
Why did the French need money?
To finance his plans for war against Great Britain.
How much did the French ask for the entire Louisiana territory?
Who was Sacagawea?
16 year old pregnant Shoshone wife of the expedition's French guide.
Why did Federalists oppose the Louisiana Purchase?
They feared that these new states would become Democratic-Republican.
Why did Federalists support Aaron Burr for governor of New York?
They needed a powerful friend in New York who would back their plan to secede from the Union.
Why did Burr blame Alexander Hamilton for his loss of the election?
Hamilton accused Burr of plotting treason.
How did Burr and Hamilton settle their differences?
Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel. Hamilton was shot and died the next day and Burr fled west to avoid arrest.
Describe Thomas Jefferson.
~58 years old
~First President inaugurated in Washington D.C.
~Casual- greeted guests in slippers and opened the doors for them himself, changed formal state dinners to casual supper parties
~"Man of the people"
~Not a good public speaker- gave his State of the Union as letters
~Brilliant and cunning politician
~Allegedly had an affair with one of his slaves
~Never responded to accusations
~Never talked about anything he didn't want to
~Made the Louisiana Purchase and secretly authorized Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore
~Used money from Hamilton's bonds to buy Louisiana and was attacked by Federalists
~Found little joy in second term- left the presidency off of his gravestone
~In the Embargo Act of 1807 stopped trade with all foreign countries.
~Foreign minister to France
~Inventor- invented the swivel chair and the dumbwaiter
~Did not follow precedents of formalities
Describe the challenges faced by Lewis and Clark.
~Winters of -45°F
~Trying to collect specimens
~Trying to move their gear upriver- sometimes only went a few miles
~Trading with Native Americans
~The Teton Sioux tribe was hostile
~Had to carry their supplies 17 miles around a waterfall
~Shoshone tribe was elusive
~During 4 month winter at Fort Clatsop, it rained everyday but 12
~Lewis fell into depression and committed suicide
~Translation was tedious and difficult
~Had to make new boats
~Lack of clothing
~Mountains were covered in snow
~Their guide lost his way
~Almost no food
Cause: How did the British prevent Americans from trading with France?
By 1805 the British set up a blockade to prevent American ships from trading with France.
Cause: What did the British do to compensate for high desertion rates in the British Royal Navy?
British naval patrols stopped American ships looking for British deserters and impressed thousands of American citizens into the British navy.
Cause: What happened when the captain of the Chesapeake refused to allow the British to search his ship?
In 1807 the American naval ship, the Chesapeake, was attacked off the coast of Virginia and three died.
How did Shawnee chief Tecumseh hope to stop white movement onto Native American land out west?
Native Americans needed to unite just as the white Americans had.
Who was the governor of the Indiana Territory?
William Henry Harrison
How did Harrison acquire the nickname "Tippecanoe"?
While Tecumseh was away recruiting, Harrison marched with 1,000 soldiers against the Red Stick's headquarters, Prophetstown (along the Tippecanoe River). After fierce fighting, Harrison eventually forced the Red Sticks to flee.
Cause: Why did Western settlers use the rallying cry, "On to Canada!"?
White settlers claimed that the British had supplied Tecumseh's confederacy with guns to use against them.
Cause: War Hawks hoped to expand the nation's power by extending into what two regions?
British Canada and Spanish Florida.
What did Oliver Hazard Perry contribute to the war effort?
Perry defeated the British naval force and seized Lake Erie from the British.
After destroying Washington D.C., where did the British sail to next?
The British were kept from entering the town by a determined defense from what U.S. fort?
Tell the story of the Star-Spangled Banner.
A Baltimore lawyer, Francis Scott Key, was hired to negotiate the release of an American hostage. Since the battle had begun, the British made them stay aboard the British ship. He was overcome with patriotism as he saw Old Glory was "still there"- the U.S. had won the Battle of Fort McHenry.
Effect: What was decided in the Treaty of Ghent?
How did Andrew Jackson become a hero during the war?
He won a decisive victory over the British at the Battle of New Orleans.
Effect: Why did the Federalist party lose respect in the eyes of the public?
Since the Federalist party opposed the war from the start, they lost respect.
Effect: How did most Americans feel at the end of the War of 1812?
A new sense of patriotism and a strong sense of national identity.
Effect: What had our young nation gained from other nations?