67 terms

Chapter 21: The Progressive Era 1901-1918

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Progressivism
-buld on existing society: moderate political changes ans social improvements through gov't action
-goals: limit power of big business, improve democracy and strengthen social justice
-Protestant church leaders, Af. Ams. union leaders, feminists
-middle-class of cities
pragmatism
-good and true could not be known in the abstract as fixed and changeless ideals
-should take pragmatic/practical approach to morals, ideals and knowledge
-experiment w/ ideas/laws-test them until find s/t that works will for the better ordering of society
William James
-leading advocate of pragmatism
John Dewey
-leading advocate of pragmatism
Frederick W. Taylor
-used a stopwatch to time output of factory workers
-discovered way of organizing ppl in most efficient manor
-scientific management
Scientific management
-organizing ppl in most efficient manor (Taylor)
-ppl thought gov't could be made efficient w/ help of experts and scientific managers
muckrakers
-newspaper and magazine publishers, authors
-exposed dirty realities of party politics and scandalous conditions or factories and slums
-in-depth, investigative stories
Henry Demarest Lloyd
-Chicago reporter
-1881-wrote series of articles for Atlantic Monthly
-attacked practices of Standard Oil Co and RRs
-wrote Wealth Against Commonwealth in 1894- exposed corruption and greed of oil monopoly (but didn't suggest solution)
Lincoln Seffans
-muckraker in McClure's Magazine
-wrote Tweed Days in St. Louis in 1902
-helped set standard for muckraking that followed with combination of careful research and sensationalism
-The Shame of the Cities-1904-described corrupt deals in big-city politics in Philly and Minneapolis
Ida Tarbell
-muckraker in McClure's Magazine
-wrote The History of the Stadard Oil Company 1902
-helped set standard for muckraking that followed with combination of careful research and sensationalism
Jacob Riis
-wrote articles on tenement life
-one of the first photojournalists
-How the Other Half Lives 1890
Theodore Dreiser
-wrote muckraking novels
-The Financier and The Titan
-portrayed avarice and ruthlessness of an industrialist
Australian ballot
-to stop manipulation and intimidation of voters by political parties
-voters mark their choices secretly in private, curtained booth
-Massachusetts first to adopt-1888
-all states adopted by 1910
direct primary
-lacing the nomination of candidate for state and federal offices in hands of the voters
-party candidates nominated by majority vote
-some form used in every state by 1915
Robert La Folette
-Progressive governor of Wisconsin
-first to introduce direct primaries
-fought for reform at state level
-brought about "Wisconsin Idea" including direct primary law, tax reform and regulation of RR rates
direct election of senators
-Nevada-1899-first state to allow voters to elect senators directly rather than state legislatures choosing
-1913-17th Amendment required all US senators to be elected by popular vote
initiative
-one of the ways Progressives were forced to obey the will of the people
-method by which voters could compel legislature to consider a bill
reforendum
-one of the ways Progressives were forced to obey the will of the people
-a method that allowed citizens vote on proposed laws printed on their ballots
recall
-one of the ways Progressives were forced to obey the will of the people
-enabled voters to remove a corrupt or unsatisfactory politician from office by majority vote
social welfare
-leaders of social justice mvmt (Jane Addams, Frances Kelly, etc) lobbied for political support in needs of immigrants and working class
-better schools, juvenile courts, liberalized divorce laws, safety regulations in tenements and factories
-thought criminals could learn to be better, fought for system of parole, separate reformatories for juveniles and limits on the death penalty
municipal reform
-Progressive leaders targeted city bosses and their corrupt alliances with local businesses
Samuel M. Jones
-Republican mayor of Toledo, Ohio in 1897 with origins as workingman
-adopted Golden Rule-introducing comprehensive program of municipal reform
-free kindergartens, night schools and public playgrounds
Tom L. Johnson
-mayor of Cleveland, Ohio
-devoted himself to tax reform and 3 cent trolley fares
-fought but failed for public ownership and operation of the city's public utilities and services (water, electricity, trolleys)
Charles Evans Hughes
-fought for reform at the state level
-battled fraudulent insurance companies in New York
Hiram Johnson
-fought for reform at the state level
-successfully fought against the economic and political power of the Southern Pacific Railroad in California
Theodore Roosevelt
-became Republican president after McKinley's assassination in 1901 and was reelected in 1904 because of the popularity of his Square Deal
Roosevelt's Square Deal
-Previous presidents had favored business in conflicts with labor
-Roosevelt favored neither business nor labor but a Square Deal for both
anthracite cole miners' strike (1902)
-coal miners on strike and Americans feared they wouldn't have coal for the winter and would freeze
-Roosevelt called union leader and coal mine owners to White House to mediate dispute
-mine owners didn't want to compromise, but when threatened to be taken over by federal troops, agrred to accept a special commission
-10% wage increase and 9 hr work day, but no union recognition
trust-busting
-first president since passing of Sherman Antitrust Act 1890 to enforce it
-busted Northern Securities Company when Supreme Court reversed its position in previous cases and upheld Roosevelt's actions
-took action against Standard Oil and 40 other monopolies
-only broke up bad trusts that harmed public and stifled competition
-left good trusts alone that dominated a market through efficiency and low prices
Elkins Act (1903)
-strengthened regulatory powers of Interstate Commerce Commission
-ICC had greater authority to stop RRs from granting rebates to favored customers
Hepburn Act (1906)
-strengthened regulatory powers of Interstate Commerce Commission
-ICC could fix 'just and reasonable' rates for RRs
Upton Sinclair
-muckraker who wrote the Jungle
-described conditions of Chicago's meatpacking industry
-caused new regulatory laws to be put in place
Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
-forbade manufacture, sale, and transportation of adulterated or mislabeled foods and drugs
Meat Inspection Act (1906)
-federal inspectors must visit meatpacking plants to ensure that they met minimum standards of sanitation
conservation
-one of Roosevelt's most original and lasting contributions in domestic policy
-wanted to protect the nation's national resources
Forest Reserve Act (1891)
-Roosevelt used to set aside 150 million acres of fed land as a national reserve that could not be sold to private interests
Newlands Reclamation Act (1902)
-provided money from sale of public land to irrigation projects in western states
Gifford Pinchot
-at first had been appointed by Roosevelt as director of US Forest Service
-became leader of National Conservation Commission established after a publicized meeting at the White House for the need for conservation
William Howard Taft
-Roosevelt's Secretary of War
-Roosevelt picked to be his successor after his 2 terms
-continued some of Roosevelt's Progressive Policies but was later accused of betraying Progressive cause
-busted 2x the number of trusts as Roosevelt
-est. Bureau of Mines
-added large tracts in Appalachians to national forest reserve
-first president to set aside federal oil lands
Mann-Elkins Act (1910)
-gave Interstate Commerce Commission power to suspend new RR rates and oversee telephone, telegraph and cable companies
16th Amendment
-ratified in 1913
-authorized US gov't to collect an income tax
-Progressive approved b/c at first only applied to the very wealthy
Payne-Aldrich Tariff (1909)
-Taft had promised to lower tariff, but then passed this
-Raised tariff on most imports
-Taft not only signed off, but made a public statement in its defense
-angered the Progressive party
Joseph Cannon
-Speaker of the House with dictatorial powers
-Progressives wanted to reduce his powers, but Taft failed to support them
Socialist Party of America
-developed in first decade of 1900s
-devoted to welfare of the working class
-originally called Socialist Labor party in 1897
-more radical reforms than Progressive Party
-public ownership of RRs, utilities, and major industries like oil and steel
Eugene V. Debs
-founders of the Socialist Party
-party's candidate for prez in 5 elections (1900-1920)
-former RR union leader (jailed in Pullman strike)
-outspoken critic of business and a champion of labor
Bull Moose party
-Progress Republicans who supported Roosevelt over Taft were kept out of the party's convention
-formed their own party and nom. Roosevelt for prez
-Roosevelt once said he was as 'strong as a bull moose'
New Nationalism
-supported by Roosevelt in 1912 election against Wilson
-called for more government regulations of business and unions, women's suffrage and more social welfare programs
New Freedom
-supported by Wilson in 1912 election against Roosevelt
-would limit both big business and big government, bring about the reform by ending corruption, and revive competition by supporting small businesses
Underwood Tariff (1913)
-Wilson called for a lower tariff and spoke to Congress about it
-resulted in a substantially lower tariff for the first time in over 50 years
-to compensate for reduced tariff revenues, included a graduated income tax rate between 1 and 6 %
banking reform
-Wilson wanted to restructure the banking and money system
-persuaded that gold standard was inflexible and banks did not serve the public interest but that of stock speculators on Wall Street
-Wilson rejected Repub. proposal for a private national bank
-passed Federal Reserve Act in 1914
Federal Reserve Act (1914)
-proposed by Wilson
-a national banking system with 12 district banks supervised by a Federal Reserve Board
-have since used Federal Reserve Notes (dollar bills)
Clayton Antitrust Act (1914)
-strengthened provisions in Sherman Antitrust Act for breaking up monopolies
-contained clause exempting unions from being prosecuted as trusts
Federal Trade Commission
-new regulatory agency
-investigated and took action against any 'unfair trade practice' in every industry except banking and transportation
Federal Farm Loan Act (1916)
-12 regional federal farm loan banks were established to provide farm loans at low interest rates
Hammer v. Dagenhart (1918)
-Child Labor Act enacted in 1916 prohibited shipment in interstate commerce of products manufactured by children under 14 years of age
-found unconstitutional in 1918
Booker T. Washington
-head of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama
-had been born into slavery on a southern plantation
-argued blacks' needs for education and economic progress were most important
-should concentrate on learning industrial skills for better wages
-after establishing secure economic base, then can fight for political and social equality
W. E. B. Du Bois
-northerner with a college education
-wrote 'The Souls of Black Folk' 1903-criticized Washington's approach and demanded equal rights for Af. Ams.
-argued political and social rights prerequisite for economic independence
urban migration
-between 1910 and 1930 about a million people traveled north to seek jobs because of
-deteriorating race relations
-destruction of cotton crop by boll weevil
-job opportunities in northern factories that opened up when whites drafted into WWI
-great depression slowed migration, but then WWII renewed it
-b/w 1940 and 1970, 4 million+ Af Ams went north
Niagara Movement
-group of black intellectuals including W. E. B. Du Bois
-met in Niagara Falls, Canada
-discussed a program of protest and action aimed at securing equal rights for blacks
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
-founded by Du Bois, members of the Niagara Movement and white progressives on Lincoln's birthday in 1908
-wanted to abolish all forms of segregation and to increase educational opportunities for Af-Am children
-nation's largest civil rights organization by 1920- 100,000 members
National Urban League
-formed in 1911 to help those migrating from the south to the northern cities
-motto=Not Alms But Opportunity
-emphasis on self-reliance and economic advancement
Carrie Chapman Catt
-became president of National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) in 1900 (reformer from Iowa)
National American Woman Suffrage Association
-argued for the vote as broadening democracy and empowering women to more actively car for their families
-started at state level, and then moved to get an amendment to the Constitution
Alice Paul
-broke off from NAWSA in 1916 and lead the National Woman's Party
National Woman's party
-broke off from NAWSA in 1916
-took to the streets with mass pickets, parades and hunger strikes
-lead by Alice Paul of NJ
-focused on winning support of Congress and the president for an amendment to the Constitution
Nineteenth Amendment
-ratified in 1920 guaranteeing women's right to vote in all elections at the local, state and national level
-because of the efforts of women during WWI
League of Women Voters
-organized after ratification of 19 amendment by Carrie Chapman Catt
-civic organization dedicated to keeping voters informed about candidates and issues